法王新闻 | 2008年12月

第三期華人宗門實修─第二天上午日誌

The Second Day of Gyalwang Karmapa’s Lineage Practice Teachings 1

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地點:印度 菩提加耶
時間:2009年01月01日上午 Thursday January 1, 2009
報導:黃靖雅
攝影:噶瑪善治、噶瑪諾布、鄭履中、潘士偉

「誰能帶領你,真正出離生老病死苦?」

宗門實修第二日 法王在聖地新年 開示究竟的皈依處

兩堂課間,再見面,已經相隔一年──橫跨2008和2009年的第三期華人「宗門實修」課程,第二天課程,已是2009年元旦。

和法王一起在聖地過年,光是這一點,已經讓弟子們覺得歡喜、滿足。何況法王今天一上課,就依序以中文、英文、韓文、藏文四種語言,向大家問候新年快樂,法王說:「願大家身體健康、天天開心,世界充滿 和平安樂,地球上的眾生都得到平等的喜悅,新年快樂!」

雖是西曆年,聖地的新年年味兒仍濃,子夜時分各寺院仍遠遠近近地響起了「辭歲之鐘」與108擊法鼓,其間即使夾雜印度人慶賀新年的喧鬧聲,菩提迦耶,這個佛教聖城的元旦,味道仍是特別不同。大家早晨相 見,互道「Happy New Year!」之餘,特別有種像家人般「天涯共此時」的親近感。法王噶瑪巴為了給弟子們賀年,宣布將給每人一份福袋和一張噶瑪巴所畫並簽名的「白度母」畫像,一時之間,歡聲雷動,德噶寺大 殿裡,年味兒衝到最高點。

不過,今天上午法王的課程延後到10:30才開始,因為正覺大塔委員會邀請法王前去主持一項祈福活動,加持讓最近印度恐怖事件中的罹難者安息。2008是印度不平安的一年,多起恐怖攻擊和零星暴亂,死難的氛 圍隱隱瀰漫,2009元旦祈福,正是預約一個平安的開始。法王8:00就前去佛陀成道的正覺大塔祈福,直到10:30才返回德噶寺。

等候期間,大家一遍遍唱頌創古仁波切為祈求淨除法王「本命年障礙」(藏人習俗認為,2009年是法王本命年)的長壽祈請文(香港創古中心印製)──

依靠如意輪母力,
勝者之王噶瑪巴,
本命年障得消除,
蓮足永固賢劫海。

誰能帶領我們真正出離生老病死苦?

由於法王想在元旦早晨為大家授皈依戒,所以今天早上特別解釋了「皈依」的意義,和如何尋找「皈依處」。

法王說,一般的皈依,就像父母朋友保護我們,給我們照顧和喜樂,我們也應該對他們特別恭敬、珍重他們,所以他們也可以說是我們的世俗「皈依處」,這是大家都熟悉的觀念。但這是指一時的安樂,有沒有一 種保護和照顧,是可以讓我們得到究竟的安樂?有沒有一種皈依處,能讓我們得到無苦的究竟之樂?就像一般醫生能解除我們暫時的病苦,但有沒有一種「醫生」,能幫助我們真正出離生老病死的輪迴苦?我們需要一 位救護者,他自己已經真正出離了輪迴的生老病死苦,所以也能幫助我們解脫生老病死苦。法王說,「這就是兩千五百年前成佛那位王子──悉達多。」

悉達多王子在出了王城四門,見到老病死苦和修行人的寂靜之樂後,發願出離輪迴,放下最鍾愛的孩子、妻子和王宮中最好的受用,到森林中修了六年極端苦行,最後來菩提大塔的菩提樹下、金剛座上,夜觀明星 而證悟萬法實相。佛陀是位真正從輪迴出離而圓滿成佛的人,所以「他就是我們的皈依處」。

外三寶與內三寶

法王說,如果我們真正見到生老病死的痛苦,會自然生起恐懼,和對輪迴的出離心,就會去尋找究竟的皈依處,就會對三寶生起信心。所謂「三寶」,就是──
佛:是自己出離輪迴、也能引導我們出離的真實皈依處;
法:是佛陀為讓眾生出離輪迴所開示的修持法寶;
僧:就是修持出離之法的佛弟子。

三寶,又可分「內三寶」和「外三寶」,外三寶是皈依的外因,就是佛法僧;內三寶是皈依的內因,是指:
一,對佛寶生起真實的信心;
二,對法寶正確了知並實修;
三,修持時,能依止僧寶或善知識。

皈依,今生的修行旅程當下就開始了

接著法王要授皈依戒,「你們今生修行旅程的第一步,就要當下開始了。」法王說,皈依又可分「皈依」和「皈依戒」兩部分,前者只是領受,後者是發誓持守皈依戒,「如果你還沒準備好,只是領受皈依也很好,在佛陀成道的聖地皈依是很吉祥的。」

接著,法王依序以中文、藏文、韓文念誦皈依文,至於對法王極具信心的廣大西方弟子,法王說由於英文尚未有定型化的皈依文,「你們對西藏一向很支持,我就把你們當西藏人,你們就跟著念藏文吧」。以下是法王帶領大眾念誦三次的「皈依文」──
我,從今日起,皈依佛,皈依法,皈依僧。
法王說,「念誦完畢,要思維自己已經得戒。」

皈依之後,應斷與應做的學處

接著,法王進一步開示「共的皈依學處」,這是針對發願持守皈依戒的人說的,首先是「應斷的學處」,就是皈依之後不應做的事:

自皈依佛,不皈依外道天神;
自皈依法,不傷害眾生;
自皈依僧,不結交惡友。

第一條,「自皈依佛,不皈依外道天神」:那可不可以拜拜祭祀呢?很多人會有這種疑問,法王說,根據佛陀所制的律典,只要不忘失根本皈依處,是可以的。不過,關於這一點,即使在佛陀住世時代,都曾引起 紛亂。法王說,有特別頑皮的六群比丘,他們就故意去供養外道天神,而且做得很誇張,僧團因此引起批評,佛陀就制止說:「可以祭祀供養外道天神,是針對在家眾說的,出家眾不可如此做。」接著,六群比丘就去 破壞梵天等印度教神像,引起抗議,佛陀再出面制止說:「你們不可供養,但也不可加以破壞。」接著,六群比丘又有新招,遇到外道神廟,就故意繞很遠的路走,佛陀知道了,又制止說:「叫你們不可破壞,但沒叫 你們不恭敬、要迴避呀。」

所以在家眾想祭祀、供養天神,如華人的「太上老君、二郎神、媽祖、關公」都是可以的;遇到外道神廟,進去禮敬、做供養、做祈願,只要不忘失根本皈依處三寶,也是可以的。這是佛陀律典上有記載的。

法王提醒,其實這一條,是要提醒我們,「我們是自己真正的救護者,唯有我們自己實修,才能真正出離輪迴」,「我們都具足成為自己救護的因,只要開發這種能力,實際去修持就可以了」。修持什麼?就是法,「佛法不只在經典上,生活裡的死亡、無常,都是活生生的佛法。」

第二條「自皈依法,不傷害眾生」:皈依之後,要勤修一切善法,不輕蔑一切眾生,即使是一條小蟲也不惡心傷害。法王提醒,我們常有是不是佛教徒的分別心,以為不是佛教徒就沒有真正的慈悲心、就不是聖者,連佛陀也針對一些印度教創教的大師說,不管是不是佛弟子:「只要具足八正道,就是聖者;沒有八正道,就不是聖者。」佛菩薩也會化現外道相,所以不可輕蔑外道。

在「不傷害眾生」部分,法王說,「其實只要具有苦蘊的人身,就難免有傷害產生。」法王舉例,在地球暖化時代,我們連呼出的二氧化碳都會傷害地球,但我們能不呼吸嗎?「只要還有貪嗔癡三毒在,就會傷害眾生」重點是不故意惡心傷害。這是消極的不傷害,積極的不傷害,是要修持正法,止息三毒,這才是積極的不傷害眾生。

第三條,「自皈依僧,不結交惡友」,法王說這個時代,實修的聖賢僧很難遇到,所以法友、善知識很重要,「譬如我的時間很少,連弟子的信都常常沒時間回,也很難有長時間的教導,所以我的弟子們應該常常聚會、連絡、互相支持。」

法王說,「你們老是說我是『行諸佛事業者』,其實你們也應該有勇氣發願,學習做個『行諸佛事業者』!」

接下來,是皈依之後,應做的學處──
一 自皈依佛,連有佛的畫像都要恭敬;
二 自皈依法,連書寫佛法的文字都要恭敬;
三 自皈依僧,連做僧袍的黃色布片都要恭敬。

法王提醒,以上三點的重點,是恭敬。

皈依之後,不共的學處

接下來,是皈依之後,不共的學處──
一 是知恩,要清楚了知三寶各自的功德。
二 是念恩,要憶持並感謝三寶的恩德,「感謝諸佛菩薩,把解脫的法像熱呼呼的飯菜,都準備好了!」
三 是供養。法王說,現在大家連吃個小東西都要供養,其實重點是「感恩的心」,「只要心存感恩,那整天都是供養。」

法王最後並提醒大家,皈依之後,「每天都念誦三次皈依文,一天之中做任何事,都要憶持三寶」。

The morning session was devoted to the Refuge Vow, which was given in Tibetan, Chinese and Korean. His Holiness began by explaining the meaning of refuge and why we needed a refuge.

First he pointed out that from the time of our birth until our death we were dependent on others. The very nature of our lives meant we had to rely on other people. These people, including family and friends, who protected and cared for us were a form of refuge. Also, everyone wished to be happy, as witnessed by the many people who wrote to him or sought audiences to ask for help – failing businesses, illnesses, and other unhappiness.

It seemed we were unable to free ourselves from suffering and problems. Thus, we needed to look for a way to free ourselves completely. We needed to find the ultimate refuge. Someone like a doctor might be able to help us temporarily but in the end we still suffered sickness, ageing and death – and we had to experience these lifetime after lifetime.

So what would an ultimate refuge be? It had to be one which could help us rid ourselves of the root causes of suffering, and this could only be done by someone who had already accomplished this. Prince Siddhartha had grown up in sheltered luxury but when he left his palace and encountered the four sufferings, he abandoned his comfortable life and the son he loved very much, in order to find liberation. He renounced palace life, practised austerities, and finally attained enlightenment. Thus the Lord Buddha has the qualifications to give us refuge.

The other two jewels are the teachings of Lord Buddha and the sangha.

Lord Buddha had taught all the external causes that could free us from samsara, not for his own benefit, but for the benefit of all suffering sentient beings.

The noble sangha were the people who were practicing the path the Lord Buddha taught. The extended sangha could include our dharma friends and those we practised with, the people who supported us in our practice.

With faith in the Three Jewels and practice we had everything we needed in order to liberate ourselves from samsara. Taking the Refuge Vow was to take the first steps on the path, and involved making a commitment to keep the precepts. His Holiness advised people that if they felt daunted by the responsibility of taking the Vow, they should think how marvelous it was to take refuge in the place where the Buddha had achieved enlightenment.

Having taken the Vow, three things had to be abandoned.

The first was trusting in worldly gods. Going for refuge meant we had chosen to follow a genuine path in order to free ourselves, something which would bring us to ultimate, stable happiness.

The second thing to be abandoned was harming sentient beings. This meant harming them with the intention to harm them. Sometimes the very nature of our lives meant that we might harm others unintentionally. We harmed sentient beings intentionally because of attachment and afflictive mental and emotional states, so we had the responsibility to train our minds in order to tame them, to stop the causes which made us harm others.

The third thing to be abandoned was harmful and evil friends. These were the people who could influence us negatively and lead us away from the path. We needed to cultivate good friends from the sangha; in this context all our dharma friends are our sangha. His Holiness explained that because he had so many students, it was often impossible to give individual help and advice, so it was very important for his disciples to help and support each other.

Having taken the Vow, three things had to be respected: all Buddha images, every single syllable of Dharma, and every piece of yellow robe. It wasn’t the robe itself but it represented the noble ones who wore it. There were also the common precepts: reciting the refuge three times daily (His Holiness admitted that the recitation in the middle of the night was a little difficult these days)!; offering the first portion of food in remembrance of the kindness of Buddha and of the Three Jewels; helping anyone who wished to take refuge; never trivialising the Three Jewels.