法王新闻 | 2009年01月

第26屆噶舉大祈願法會─第五天日誌 法王開示度母法與密續

Kagyu Monlam: His Holiness Talks About White Tara

地點:印度 菩提加耶
時間:2009年01月08日 January 08, 2009
報導:黃靖雅
攝影:噶瑪善治、噶瑪諾布 、班瑪歐色多傑

「善行善願,即是行佛事業!」

第一座法

点击图片切换大图/小图

上午6:00,嘉察仁波切陞座傳戒,傳授漢傳稱「八關齋戒」的「大乘布薩戒」。接著維那師帶領大眾以梵文念誦〈三常誦〉(大祈願課誦本無梵文版),再以藏文依序念誦:
1.〈皈依發心〉(大祈願課誦本P35)
2.〈祈願儀軌二十支〉(大祈願課誦本P38)
3.〈相好讚〉(大祈願課誦本P73)
4.〈六嚴二勝讚文〉(大祈願課誦本P127)
5.〈懺悔支〉(大祈願課誦本P144)

而後迴向,圓滿第一座法。

第二座法

上午9:00,法王蒞臨後,先向今日貴賓菩提大塔管理委員會的秘書長南瑞多傑先生(Shri Namzey Dorjee,本次法會場地提供單位代表)致意,再陞座主法,今日將講授度母法與密續。

法王說,昨天「密勒日巴大師傳」已經告一段落,今天講度母相關的事,是因為明天會給「度母法」的灌頂。我們進入菩提大塔,會看到右側有度母像,相傳她授記阿底峽尊者會到西藏,是會開口說話的一位度母 。在藏地的寺院,到處可以看到度母像。度母可以說是佛教流傳最久的一位佛菩薩之一,也是密續事部瑜伽的一位本尊。密續,又稱密咒乘,「密」的意思是不可以對不是密乘的弟子宣說,「咒」的意思是真言、咒語 ,梵文叫「mantra」,man的意思是心,tra的意思是救護,整個意思是「能救護一個人的心」。由於它是可以帶領人成就佛道的,又稱為「乘」,所以叫「密咒乘」。

His Holiness said that regarding tomorrow’s White Tara empowerment, He will give preparation Tara teaching practice today.

The image of Tara can be seen in many monasteries and stupas in India. No monastery in Tibet is without Tara.

Tara is one of the most popular yidams in the Buddhist world and is part of Vajrayana practice. Generally, secret mantra should not be taught to those who are not suitable vessels for Vajrayana, mantra meaning mind (man) and protection (tra). Vajrayana is part of the Mahayana Tantra of outer actions and inner yoga (kryiya). When Vajrayana prevailed in China the outer kriya was more prevalent as lower tantras were more emphasised at that time. The main place for translation was Samye Monastery in Tibet and unless permission was obtained from Samye, higher yogas were not allowed.

今天密法廣傳到世界,許多人、甚至漢傳顯乘的人都有不少人對密法有興趣,但也有不少人因不了解而毀謗,也有人胡亂解釋,所以今天好好講解一下,是比較好的。續典中提到,「欲聞小道者,可學小乘;欲聞 大道者,可學大乘;欲聞甚深道者,可學金剛乘。」小乘是要暫時躲避煩惱,大乘、般若蜜多乘是要面對煩惱、降伏煩惱,金剛乘則把煩惱抓起來,讓它變朋友,幫我們降伏煩惱敵。金剛乘相信,煩惱一生起,就可轉 為方便法門。弟子有不同的心量,佛陀就開示了不同的乘法,適合不同心量的弟子。所有的乘法,無不是為了對治各種煩惱,但如何對治這些煩惱,有不同的程度和方式。

There are different kinds of practice in Buddhism and different teachings for different people according to their level and experience. Those who are beginners at the first level are taught how to evade negative emotions. Those at a little higher level have paramita teachings, to face negative emotions and fight against them. At a higher level they are taught to consider negative emotions as enemies but to catch them and make friends with them.

一切的法門,都是煩惱的對治法。小乘的別解脫戒,是防範貪嗔癡的生起;對大乘來說,貪可以成為菩薩的道,慈悲是這一道最重要的特質,而與慈悲相對相違的是嗔恨;金剛乘則直接將貪嗔癡轉為智慧,直接轉 為道用,譬如忿怒本尊,密乘特別是要消除我們凡夫的執著,淨除我們見到顯空不二的障覆,而這最主要的煩惱即是愚癡,要消除細微的愚癡,了知愚癡的本質即是本智、本覺的智慧,就可以轉變為五智的代表──五方 佛。在這一乘中,有許多開啟智慧的法門,若未次第而上的學習,弟子的心尚未到達那個程度,就學高深的法,雖然法本身沒有問題,但因行者的心未成熟,容易發生誤會,這是很危險的。

Anything which is not an antidote to mind poisons must be given up, for example trying to get rid of circumstances through which we have attachment. Mahayana Bodhisattvas have power to transform attachment into loving kindness and compassion. We need to work against anger and hatred and there are different ways to do this, such as wrathful deities and transformation of whole appearances. The main thing is to transform appearance, to see the impure nature of appearance.

There are five wisdoms, for example mirror like wisdom, which is an antidote to ignorance (marikpa). There are different ways to generate wisdom and rikpa if we practice at that level, but if we are not ready for that practice it doesn’t work and can be a little dangerous.

就顯乘來說,想要成佛,要積聚三大阿僧祇劫的資糧,這是經典有記載的。想要證得法身和色身的圓滿,需要圓滿福慧二資糧;為了成就色身的因,為了證成色身的相好莊嚴,要不斷承事上師,這在顯乘是有提到 的。讓異熟的色身(因為因果業力聚集而生的色身),越來越殊勝,慢慢就能轉變這個色身。還有一種無漏業,因為所知障所成的細微的業,這是菩薩特有的業,要一切細微的業都消除、證成色身是很困難的。同類的 因,才能證成同類的果。還有肉身的時候,是沒辦法證成佛的色身,為了積集證得佛色身的因,我們在修持道上,要做止觀禪修。

金剛乘的修法是以無漏的方式,殊勝的轉變方式,轉苦蘊的血肉身為本尊身,轉為道用,以無苦的方式修行,苦亦轉為樂。如果要證悟,要具備和果同類的因,才能以本質無別的色身,透過方便、智慧無二的修持 證得法身。我們要觀本尊的身語意化光融入我們,就是為了積聚成就佛色身的因。

It is said that if you practice Vajrayana you will be liberated in this lifetime, or eight or sixteen lifetimes. The main cause is the two accumulations together. To attain enlightened Dharmakaya, His Holiness gave two recommendations – positive deeds and respect for the Lama, to welcome him on his arrival and on his departure saying goodbye! These will contribute to the attainment of rupakaya.

每個人的心,都具有光明的本質,無始以來即是如此,我們現在修光明,當死亡現前時,在進入中陰之前,死亡光明會現前,光明的覆障會消除,這樣我們就有機會證得「法身破瓦」。這樣的法,我們如果不修, 就像入寶山而空手回,真是太可惜了。

Sometimes we talk about karma that is free from negative emotions. When you have completely cleared and purified subtle negative karma you will gain the wisdom body, but it’s difficult to have this.

In order to attain the two rupakayas you have to accumulate the reason or cause right now.

Shamata and vipassana practices directly lead to completing the form Buddha’s thirty two qualities. This is explained only in Vajrayana. There is a special method to lead to attainment, for example when we meditate as the yidam and through rays we purify, heal and transform other beings. So practice now, practice with skilful means. If you do this, there will be less difficulties to attain the result, cause and result must be similar. It is said that Maitreya Buddha, in a simple way of practicing, became enlightened. If we are skilful, directly working on the result of the two accumulations on the path, we don’t have to go through hardships. It is imperative to work on that – through Vajrayana we can swiftly attain Buddhahood.

Attain wisdom and compassion inseparably. You can’t have a result from a totally different seed. A result can only happen with causes, without causes nothing happens. The method is wisdom and compassion as inseparable and of the same nature.

Subtlest mind is clear light, always there from the beginning. Body, speech and mind are inseparable but at our level, we see these three aspects as something “out there”. Mind sees something separate. When you practice Vajrayana, wisdom and compassion together, understand that what you see isn’t separate.

Samsara is beginningless and even scientists are confused about this. They talk about the “Big Bang”, but what comes before that? They don’t know and in the same way we have the same problem. Look at my life. It is a continuation of my last life. After the last and this life, there was clear light, which happens at the time of death. There is white light, dark red light, more and more subtle then becoming natural state of mind, the essence of consciousness which we call clear light. Some people experience that, some don’t. Even though it arises, people don’t see it. Experience and emptiness are inseparable. If you can see it as clear light then death is no problem. At the time of Bardo we can become liberated. We must work on this and practice for the point after death.

We must understand the real meaning of Vajrayana, not just as ritual. It is more difficult to find that the Buddhas. There are thousands of Buddhas, but only Shakyamuni Buddha taught Vajrayana and we have met these teachings. There are three main specialties of Vajrayana. If you extract the essence of Vajrayana this is very good, but if you are only involved in mantra, rituals etc then this is not so good. You must understand the method. Lamas are extremely important. In Tibet they understood the importance of Lamas. Then the statues of Lamas were made and put in the main shrines so maybe you didn’t see Buddha Shakyamuni. That could be why it became known as Lamaism. We must not do what we did in Tibet because now we are connected with others. Practice in secret in our hearts, not to show off. Go according to what is appropriate to you. For example emptiness is important and if misunderstood can become nihilism, which is very bad and dangerous. It’s the same with Vajrayana. If you meet a true teacher of Vajrayana this will be very good and useful to you.

When we do the empowerment we do not talk much, but you must understand it as well.

我們明天要給密乘「度母」的灌頂,希望各位成為具器的弟子,我也會想辦法成為一位具德上師。

接下來,我們禪修空性。

大家不要以為空性就是空空黑黑、什麼都沒有,不要落入斷邊(主張事物空無,與主張事物恆常的「常邊」相對,都是落於一邊的極端見解,所以稱為「邊見」)。觀修空性,我覺得比較好的是「緣起性空」(依 緣而生,本質為空性),凡事相依而存,要依賴別的事物而存在,例如「長、短」都無自主性,都是相依而生的,或者就像「瓶子的空性」,沒有瓶子,哪裡來的瓶子的空性?「能成能斷」的方法也不錯,先斷掉執實 成見,再說有如來藏,但要注意不要落入斷邊就是了。

「人都有牽引、帶領自己的能力」法王說,譬如明天早上3:00有事,你不用鬧鐘自己就會醒來,就像腦子裡有個時鐘。

法王再舉「瓶子的空性」為例,(一支瓶子)不管是左或右,頂或底,都是相對而生(有左才有右,有上才有下)的概念,彼此都是相依而生,並非實存,這就是空性,但雖然本質是空性,仍有功用,所以仍是一 個有利益的如幻的瓶子。如果認為連如幻的瓶子都沒有用了,那就陷入「斷邊」了,這樣落入頑空是不好的。

好,請大家就這樣,安住五分鐘。

大眾安住五分鐘。之後,法王說,不知道各位是真正修空性了,還是修實性,是不是把一切變得更堅固了。

Meditate on emptiness. You might be apprehensive, emptiness maybe becomes a dark place. When I was young and had not studied much I had to meditate on emptiness. While examining everything disappeared. There was a kind of darkness, a strong fear in my mind. It was like a television going off. I was too afraid to sit and needed to go out for a walk. My teacher said yes, go for a walk. He had a white beard and I am afraid of him even now. Sometimes in contemplating emptiness people have sat down, gone mad and even vomited blood! For me it was a strong experience. Some say it’s good. Fear means you have thought about emptiness. I thought that this was maybe leading to nihilism.

When you analyze interdependence, there is a danger that it will go into nihilism. It is said that for beginners, it’s best to analyze from negation because if you look from the positive side you will find something. It’s like giving money to someone to buy something, he will find something to buy. From the negative side, every concept is negated then slowly you will understand emptiness. Understanding emptiness as nothingness is wrong, understanding emptiness through interdependence, relativity, is good. If you analyze emptiness through interdependence then nothing can go wrong. For example there is long and short. Long and short are relative to each other. Nothing is long or short within itself. There is nothing that is not relative to anything else.

Everything arises out of causes and conditions and there is nothing that does not have a cause and condition. The emptiness of a vase relies on the vase. Tashi is Tibetan. If there is no Tibet then there can’t be Tashi. If we meditate like this we can understand more clearly. Whatever you see in front of you look at it as emptiness. Everything is dependant of and relative to each other. Poison is poison and it can kill, but some animals eat poison and don’t die. Some do. Poison is poison to some, medicine to others. It is not a poison on its own. If it were poison on its own then it would not be beneficial to anyone.

接著法王獨頌〈大祈願文〉、〈冥陽迴向文〉。法王頌〈大祈願文〉前,提醒大家說,人們都說「噶瑪巴是諸佛事業的總集」,但不是只有我一個人是在行佛事業,你們也要參與,你們任何一個善心善行、發任何 一個善願,都是在行佛事業。所以到「我確札嘉措亦發願統攝」可以換上每個人自己的名字發願。

而後迴向,圓滿第二座法。

第三座法

下午1:30,法王陞座主法。維那師先帶領大眾念誦──
1.〈蓮花生大士消除障道祈請文〉(臨時增加,大祈願課誦本無)
2.〈願望任運自然成就祈請頌〉(大祈願課誦本P369)
3.〈雪域安樂願文〉(大祈願課誦本P460)

接著,法王開示,藏文dan是法教的意思,si是延續廣大、長久的意思,意思是祈願佛陀法教能廣大延續。佛法在藏地,因為從祖孫三法王起,即能尊敬佛法,所以佛法在藏地能久傳。但世間有盛就有衰,佛 法在藏地也有多次興衰,各族各教派間,有時友愛,有時也有鬥爭和戰爭,中間也曾經過朗達瑪滅佛的災禍。〈雪域安樂願文〉既是祈願雪域西藏和平安樂,也是祈願世界和平安樂。

怙主達賴喇嘛是西藏佛法最勝的頂嚴,他為民族、也為西藏的安樂而努力,還有120萬流亡印度的藏民要照顧。希望以達賴喇嘛為主的所有正法上師,都能長久住世;也祈願他與流亡政府,和中國之間,互相能有更 多的溝通,沒有障礙的互相作更多的了解。

我們的文化在國外,有被同化的危機。我們要為教法,為眾生的喜樂多發心,不只為藏民,也為漢藏合作、融合,希望漢藏之間從古以來的喜樂關係能延續下去,因為更多佛法的交流,化解政治的黑暗面。

這次噶舉大祈願法會請示流亡政府辦公室,要祈求達賴喇嘛長久住世及西藏安樂、世界和平,應該持誦哪些願文,他們建議念誦上師度母的願文、〈蓮師七句祈請文〉和〈雪域安樂願文〉。我們祈求蓮花生大士、 觀音菩薩(祂是藏地最親近的菩薩),這是最需要你們護佑的時刻啊,祈請你們的護佑加被!不只是藏民,大家都要過得好,希望一切戰爭、經濟不好帶來的痛苦,都轉為喜樂!

接下來唱頌〈蓮師七句祈請文〉和〈救度佛母二十一種禮讚經〉,救度母是消除障礙最迅速的本尊,唱五遍。在維那師帶領下,大眾唱頌──

1.〈蓮師七句祈請文〉(臨時增加,大祈願課誦本無)
2.〈救度佛母二十一種禮讚經〉(大祈願課誦本P324)五遍

最近是善力和惡力激烈交戰的時刻,要增進善力吉祥,沒有比《心經》更殊勝了,要專注,不要散亂,專注在《心經》所詮釋的空性上,願眾生富足!

在維那師帶領下,大眾唱《心經》(大祈願課誦本P27)。

前賢譯師們努力傳揚的佛法,如果我們不努力就會消失,我們接下來唱頌〈教法興盛願文〉,迴向以達賴喇嘛為主的正法上師長久住世,祈願海內外藏族,都能了解並修持佛法,以利益眾生。

在維那師帶領下,大眾唱頌〈教法興盛願文〉(臨時增加,大祈願課誦本無)。

這個世界需要自由,大自然也是,動物也是;藏地當然也需要自由。達賴喇嘛是亞洲自由的提倡者,他的努力就是祈願一切眾生得享無害的自由。我們先唱頌〈無有傷害祈願文〉,再唱頌第十六世法王所著作的〈 達賴喇嘛長壽祈請文〉,以及〈嘉察仁波切長壽祈請文〉,祈請達賴喇嘛、嘉察仁波切以及所有噶舉傳承的上師都能長久住世。

在維那師帶領下,大眾唱頌──
1.〈無有傷害祈願文〉(臨時增加,大祈願課誦本無)
2.〈達賴喇嘛長壽祈請文〉(臨時增加,大祈願課誦本無)
3.〈嘉察仁波切長壽祈請文〉(臨時增加,大祈願課誦本無)
4.〈噶舉無分別教派長壽祈請文〉(臨時增加,大祈願課誦本無)

而後迴向,圓滿第三座法。

今日下午,菩提迦耶仍不尋常地在乾季下雨,但法王陞座、大眾開始唱頌〈蓮花生大士消除障道祈請文〉後,雨勢收成若有若無的細雨,不礙念誦,且有滌塵之效,憑添清爽,只有法本上零星飄過的雨絲, 見證確實有雨。

第四座法

下午3:30,維那師帶領大眾念誦──
1.〈卓普零星寶願文〉(大祈願課誦本P423)
2.〈臧巴加惹願文〉(大祈願課誦本P432)
3.〈耶巴噶舉二十願文〉(大祈願課誦本P436)
4.〈巴絨噶舉願文〉(大祈願課誦本P437)
5.〈至尊帕莫竹巴座間願文〉(大祈願課誦本P440)
2.〈無分別持教長壽願文〉(大祈願課誦本P274)
3.〈長壽願文〉(見長壽文本)
4.〈護法供儀〉(大祈願課誦本中文無)
5.〈富足圓滿〉(大祈願課誦本P279)
6.《月藏經》(大祈願課誦本P269)
7.〈成就實諦文〉(大祈願課誦本P320)

而後迴向,圓滿第四座法。

活動短訊

各國代表練唱「點燈祈願文」,法王親自指導

下午6:00,在德噶寺大殿,舉行各國及各寺院代表「點燈祈願文」練唱,法王蒞臨指導。凡事注重細節的法王,仔細注意各國各寺院練唱情形,及程序流暢與否。各國及各寺院代表,分批站出演唱,在音樂伴奏下, 不同語言的「點燈祈願文」依次迴盪在德噶寺大殿,優美感人。