法王新闻 | 2009年01月

法王噶瑪巴開示:生活中的佛法〈2〉法王開示「貪慾與慈悲」

His Holiness Teaches on “Living the Dharma”〈Day One〉-2

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地點:印度 菩提加耶
時間:2009年01月12日 January 13th, 2009
報導:黃靖雅
攝影:噶瑪善治

第二堂課 Session two

下午3:00,法王說,早上時,我們說要把修行帶入生活,要怎麼做呢,早上一起來,就要憶念三寶,再發起、投射出一個強烈的心念:我今天一天之中,要盡力利益他人,至少不要傷害他人,那今天就會是個「吉祥日」。

到了辦公室,在做所有工作前,先讓心平靜下來,禪修幾分鐘(法王本來說五分鐘,但馬上說,如果連五分鐘都太長,至少兩分鐘也好),這樣工作品質會好很多,那你的工作就會是個「布施」。

回到家裡,好好教養孩子,把孩子教成懂得利他的人,這樣養孩子本身就是修行。我們先前提到一個例子,如果夫妻互相之間很關愛,那先生連到花園澆水都會微笑。

我們要讓心有機會放鬆、平靜、休息,所以要安排禪修、課誦,來解除心的逆緣,就是散亂、迷迷糊糊像重感冒。現代人都太忙,工作有太多壓力,有太多事要做,連到中心共修,上師也有一大堆事給你做,法王開玩笑說:「你不做,就說你違背三昧耶!」要經由禪修,得到內在的喜樂,而不是外在,每三小時至少讓自己靜下來十分鐘,「Please!(拜託!)」法王用英文說。

心的確會放縱、外馳,但它總會回來,要準備一個家,讓心回來,讓心有個休息、放鬆的地方。讓心平靜下來很重要,每天要有時間專一不散亂地在所緣境上禪修幾分鐘。法王再舉了先前舉過的「國王與聰明大臣」的故事說,故事裡的國王,想把滿屋子金銀財寶搬到新家,又不信任別人,就叫他最相信的大臣,在一晝夜間把所有東西搬過去,他會重重有賞,大臣拚了命的搬,終於全部搬完,如期完成,也得到一大堆獎賞,他累壞了,就這樣「呼!」躺了下來……放鬆就是這樣,當心累壞了,就這樣全部放下!

所以,禪修首先就是要放鬆。我們的心總不滿足,心滿足就會放鬆下來。譬如說我們今天聚在一起,已經是一項成就,這在五六十年前是不可能的事,像一場夢一樣,要知道這是很難得的事,心很滿足就會很放鬆。

In the afternoon session, Gyalwang Karmapa clarified the advice on integrating Dharma into daily life he had given in the morning session. He had not meant that formal practice or retreat were unimportant, but wanted to show how it was also not absolutely necessary to do formal practice, in the context of the many Westerners who came to see him who had so much work to do and very little time for meditation. It would also be wrong, he added, to give the impression that those engaged in formal practice, retreat and meditation were the ‘real thing’.

He then went on to discuss how to integrate formal practice into daily life.

Generally speaking dharma practice was not restricted to the temple, monastery or retreat, or the shrine room at home. It can be done anywhere, on a picnic, in the office, in prison; some great masters had said we could even practice dharma in our sleep, if we knew how to do it, which was useful as life was half-awake and half-sleeping. If possible, we need to set some time aside each day, in the morning, for formal practice, and then the day can become worthwhile.

Then at work, if we make the commitment that our work will be useful and beneficial for society then the work we do can become a form of giving – and hence the practice of generosity. When we finish work and return home, if we can bring up our children in a way that will be beneficial to the world that is also a dharma practice. If we reflect on the love we have for our partner or for our family, it is possible to transfer that loving kindness to other sentient beings. His Holiness gave the example of someone who is in love – even when they water the plants; there is a loving quality to the action.

In the hectic schedule of our day-to-day lives we needed to create a time and space in which we could rest our minds, otherwise they became too turbulent and disturbed. This was the role of meditation. Through meditation we could develop a peaceful, calm, and joyous mind.

Gyalwang Karmapa returned to a theme he had introduced during the pre-Monlam teachings, that of building a home for our minds, a place to come back to, where our minds could rest and de-stress. These days he himself had limited time for formal practice, but when he did practice, he did it one-pointedly. Nothing else was allowed to intrude. Mahamudra practice describes a state free of conceptual thoughts, and it was important to aspire to this.

法王接著談到貪慾。嗔恨只是偶爾生起,但貪慾卻會一直跟著你、纏縛你。他說西藏有個比喻說,貪慾就像個熱杯子,想抓,太燙手,不抓,又會掉到地下摔破,這樣「不能抓又放不下,就是貪慾」。

Too much clinging and attachment to things was a great obstacle to finding peace of mind, because it was impossible to separate the mind when we were attached. Anger is present sometimes but not all the time, whereas attachment is there all the time, making it very difficult to separate ourselves from it. As the Tibetan saying goes: If we hold it, it burns our hand. If we don’t hold it, it breaks.

法王說,解決方法是首先要觀察如何生起貪愛心,我們對可愛樂的對境,不自覺就只看到它好的一面,就像觸電一樣,接著就想得到它,心就開始變得不理性、不自由,喜歡一樣東西,完全是因不理性的心造成的(和對境如何無關),就像一顆假鑽石,以為它是真的時,貪愛程度是一樣的。貪慾不節制,我們就會變小偷、強盜。

法王這裡提到,當我們慈悲眾生,這算是一種貪愛嗎?法王說,慈悲和貪愛的共同點是「不捨」,慈悲是放不下、不捨任何眾生,但慈悲是理性的,它不會控制你、纏縛著你,讓你失掉心的自在,它更開放、寬廣、更自由。

法王接著說,在家人處理感情常用不理性的方式,最後貪愛會變成嗔恨。有對夫婦就是這樣,他們已經互相嗔恨到不講話了,但有一天先生有事,第二天必須早起,就留字條給太太說:「明天早上9:00叫我起床」,沒想到第二天張開眼睛已經10:00了,他就又急又氣想質問太太,但馬上在身邊發現一張紙條「現在9:30了,再不起床,快來不及了!」夫妻互相之間要成為彼此快樂的因,而不是痛苦的因。

Gyalwang Karmapa then explained how attachment arises and the difficulties it causes.

The first problem was that when we were attached to something we only saw the positive never the negative. Something that we are attached to appears very good, and the object of our attachment is seen as something desirable. Attachment deprives us of our freedom. We see something we want, for instance, and feel compelled to buy it. In a way we are overpowered by the object that we are attached to. We are trapped by it. His Holiness described how, as a child, he was taken to shops in Beijing which stocked the most amazing toys. At that point he understood why people might steal. What we see as desirable or undesirable is the product of our own minds, perhaps sometimes through cultural conditioning, and we often overvalue something, like someone being fooled by a fake diamond, thinking that it is 100% desirable when it is worthless.

Could compassion be viewed as a form of attachment? His Holiness agreed that it could be similar but the difference was that we had a choice whether to be compassionate or not. Furthermore, the grounds for compassion were genuine- not to abandon sentient beings, whereas with attachment it was “I want”.

關於貪慾,還有一個故事,法王說,大家也許聽過,有兩個和尚要過河,河邊有位女郎說:「我生病,不能碰水,請抱我過河。」年輕和尚婉拒了,年紀大的和尚說沒關係,那我抱妳過去,過了河,放下女郎,兩人走好久以後,年輕和尚終於忍不住質問年紀大的和尚為什麼抱女人,難道不怕破戒?老和尚這才說:「我已經放下好久了,難道你還抱著?」貪慾就是這樣,心裡有沒有放下,才是重點。

Gyalwang Karmapa told a story to illustrate how attachment led to suffering.

There is a rule that monks cannot touch women. So, one day two monks came to a river, and there they met a pretty young woman who asked for help because the water was so deep. The younger of the two protested, “No,no! We are monks. We can’t touch you.” But the older monk just picked her up and carried her across. The young monk was quite outraged by the older monk’s behavior, and after a while, he challenged him about his action.

The old monk replied, “I carried her across the river only, but you are still carrying her.”

問答時間

問題一:生活裡的禪修,如何和儀軌功課取得平衡?那我們還需要閉關嗎?
法王答:我說生活裡的禪修,不是說正行或座上修不重要。當你真的很想讓心得到平靜,就願意把身語約束起來(從事禪修);否則心向外馳,卻約束身語,這叫「坐牢」,不叫「閉關」,這是一種監獄,「沒有出離的心,而去閉關,你會後悔。」如果你找到時間、地方閉關,那很好;如果你找不到時間閉關,只能在生活裡禪修,那也很好──重點是禪修,而不是把自己關起來。

Returning to the question of the role of formal practice, His Holiness warned about some pitfalls to avoid. Particularly, going into retreat required correct attitude and motivation. The purpose of retreat was to pacify body, speech and mind, but some people seemed to regard retreat as a tradition or something that had to be done saying, “Oh, I have to do a three year retreat.” In which case, there would be little benefit.

問題二:許多人為貪慾所苦,我們如何才能有感情,而沒有貪著?
法王答:哦,這很難,「可能要一手修定,一手握手」,對一位修行人,慈悲很重要,智慧也很重要,但要抉擇時,智慧更重要,這時你就要拿出深刻的智慧,幫助自己抉擇。當你不觀察不分析時,可能以為貪慾也不錯嘛,這時就要以正確如法的態度,讓慈悲智慧平衡,這很重要。

Finally, the principal thing in the Dharma is the union of wisdom and compassion. These two should also go together in our lives. We needed to know what the sources of suffering were, and what would bring true happiness, so that we could understand what was to be abandoned and what to be adopted.

法會比一比,東西大不同

法無定貌,連噶瑪巴的課程在東西方弟子手裡,也呈現不同面貌,東西比一比,有不少有趣的對照出現──

• 報名動作慢的,請門外坐:由於承辦的西方弟子接受報名人數較少,報名工作很早就「關帳」,有不少動作慢的向隅者只能坐在門外,不得其門而入。現場坐得較寬鬆,不像華人課程那麼爆滿,至少擠進1350人,西方課程只收1200名,但大門口與四周走廊坐了不少無法現場報名、入內聽講的弟子,形成場內外都很熱烈的有趣狀況。

• 你莊嚴,我簡單:華人宗門實修中,法王指示帶入漢傳唱頌儀軌,氣氛莊嚴;但西方課程「前行」則輕鬆多了,在簡單的梵文〈三常誦〉和藏文「獻曼達」之後,法王就開始上課。不過,由於今年法王特別強調禪修,所以每堂課前都要求大眾先禪修靜坐15分鐘,待法王陞座時,大眾身心已較靜定,聞法氛圍輕鬆但專注。

• 菜鳥有問題,大膽問:在開放提問上,西方弟子遠較東方弟子熱烈,所提問題有不少初機學佛人坦率而爆笑的可愛問題,光是念問題就會引起哄堂大笑,非常能展現西方弟子學習上勇於發問的特質,法王也因此增加了較多的問答時間。

• 56國弟子,小小聯合國:雖然兩場法會都準備了各種語言的同步翻譯,但華人宗門實修,來參加的,還是以世界各地華人居多,今年統計有38國;但西方弟子課程,可能是在祈願法會之後舉行,主辦單位統計報名的就有56國,數字非常驚人,一時之間德噶寺就像小小聯合國一樣,也足見法王噶瑪巴的攝受力,是跨國界、跨種族的。