法王新闻 | 2009年01月
時間：2009年01月12日 January 13th, 2009
第二堂課 Session two
In the afternoon session, Gyalwang Karmapa clarified the advice on integrating Dharma into daily life he had given in the morning session. He had not meant that formal practice or retreat were unimportant, but wanted to show how it was also not absolutely necessary to do formal practice, in the context of the many Westerners who came to see him who had so much work to do and very little time for meditation. It would also be wrong, he added, to give the impression that those engaged in formal practice, retreat and meditation were the ‘real thing’.
He then went on to discuss how to integrate formal practice into daily life.
Generally speaking dharma practice was not restricted to the temple, monastery or retreat, or the shrine room at home. It can be done anywhere, on a picnic, in the office, in prison; some great masters had said we could even practice dharma in our sleep, if we knew how to do it, which was useful as life was half-awake and half-sleeping. If possible, we need to set some time aside each day, in the morning, for formal practice, and then the day can become worthwhile.
Then at work, if we make the commitment that our work will be useful and beneficial for society then the work we do can become a form of giving – and hence the practice of generosity. When we finish work and return home, if we can bring up our children in a way that will be beneficial to the world that is also a dharma practice. If we reflect on the love we have for our partner or for our family, it is possible to transfer that loving kindness to other sentient beings. His Holiness gave the example of someone who is in love – even when they water the plants; there is a loving quality to the action.
In the hectic schedule of our day-to-day lives we needed to create a time and space in which we could rest our minds, otherwise they became too turbulent and disturbed. This was the role of meditation. Through meditation we could develop a peaceful, calm, and joyous mind.
Gyalwang Karmapa returned to a theme he had introduced during the pre-Monlam teachings, that of building a home for our minds, a place to come back to, where our minds could rest and de-stress. These days he himself had limited time for formal practice, but when he did practice, he did it one-pointedly. Nothing else was allowed to intrude. Mahamudra practice describes a state free of conceptual thoughts, and it was important to aspire to this.
Too much clinging and attachment to things was a great obstacle to finding peace of mind, because it was impossible to separate the mind when we were attached. Anger is present sometimes but not all the time, whereas attachment is there all the time, making it very difficult to separate ourselves from it. As the Tibetan saying goes: If we hold it, it burns our hand. If we don’t hold it, it breaks.
Gyalwang Karmapa then explained how attachment arises and the difficulties it causes.
The first problem was that when we were attached to something we only saw the positive never the negative. Something that we are attached to appears very good, and the object of our attachment is seen as something desirable. Attachment deprives us of our freedom. We see something we want, for instance, and feel compelled to buy it. In a way we are overpowered by the object that we are attached to. We are trapped by it. His Holiness described how, as a child, he was taken to shops in Beijing which stocked the most amazing toys. At that point he understood why people might steal. What we see as desirable or undesirable is the product of our own minds, perhaps sometimes through cultural conditioning, and we often overvalue something, like someone being fooled by a fake diamond, thinking that it is 100% desirable when it is worthless.
Could compassion be viewed as a form of attachment? His Holiness agreed that it could be similar but the difference was that we had a choice whether to be compassionate or not. Furthermore, the grounds for compassion were genuine- not to abandon sentient beings, whereas with attachment it was “I want”.
Gyalwang Karmapa told a story to illustrate how attachment led to suffering.
There is a rule that monks cannot touch women. So, one day two monks came to a river, and there they met a pretty young woman who asked for help because the water was so deep. The younger of the two protested, “No,no! We are monks. We can’t touch you.” But the older monk just picked her up and carried her across. The young monk was quite outraged by the older monk’s behavior, and after a while, he challenged him about his action.
The old monk replied, “I carried her across the river only, but you are still carrying her.”
Returning to the question of the role of formal practice, His Holiness warned about some pitfalls to avoid. Particularly, going into retreat required correct attitude and motivation. The purpose of retreat was to pacify body, speech and mind, but some people seemed to regard retreat as a tradition or something that had to be done saying, “Oh, I have to do a three year retreat.” In which case, there would be little benefit.
Finally, the principal thing in the Dharma is the union of wisdom and compassion. These two should also go together in our lives. We needed to know what the sources of suffering were, and what would bring true happiness, so that we could understand what was to be abandoned and what to be adopted.法會比一比，東西大不同