法王新闻 | 2009年01月

法王噶瑪巴開示:生活中的佛法〈1〉法王開示「生活裡的實修」

His Holiness Teaches on “Living the Dharma”〈Day One〉

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地點:印度 菩提加耶
時間:2009年01月12日 January 13th, 2009
報導:黃靖雅
攝影:噶瑪善治

「為了利他,我願意改變自己!」

有「Post-Monlam」(後祈願法會)之稱的「西方弟子課程」,今天12日起,緊接著大祈願法會之後展開,以「法王修行分享:生活中的佛法」為題,一連三天、一天兩堂課,由噶舉大祈願法會組織主辦,在德噶寺大殿舉行,有來自全球56國約1200人報名參加。

從有「Pre-Monlam」(前祈願法會)之稱的3天「華人宗門實修」課程,經過8天大祈願法會,到「Post-Monlam」(後祈願法會)3天的「西方弟子課程」,近半個月,法王天天開講,從一天兩堂課到一天五座法,從東方到西方,形成完整的帶狀課程,這是噶瑪巴全年分量最重的公開教授,也是噶舉教法的年度大事,更是有福報的弟子們一年一度的法味盛宴。

值得一提的是,今年從美國來了一對華裔數位高手夫婦Jeffery和Jill,帶來全套器材,來到e化環境不夠穩定成熟的菩提迦耶,在網路直播技術上有了突破,即使無法到現場的全球弟子,也可以在各自國家同步聽聞開示。

His Holiness taught on Living the Dharma, this was the first teaching in India directed specifically at Westerners.

His Holiness was scheduled to start teaching at 9.00am and 3.00pm, and the final quarter of an hour before each teaching began was designated as “silent meditation”. 

第一堂課 Session one

上午9:00,法王一開始先以英文開示說,也許受到去年中到美國訪問激勵,這是他首次以英文教學,全場弟子立刻響起熱烈掌聲。

His Holiness began by welcoming everyone in English and then continued in Tibetan. He said he viewed everybody in the hall as his friends, and reflected on how they had come there from all over the world, from different countries, environments, cultures and conditions, to hear about living the dharma, so, in spite of his youth, he would try to share his own experiences.

接著法王主要以藏文、中間穿插英文作開示,法王說,首先要說什麼是「法」,一般人總以為修行,就是要特別找個地方、找個時間做身語的修持,做做儀軌念誦之類的功課。但這樣有個危險,就是:走出佛堂,就忘了佛法。

First he tackled the question, “What is dharma?”
Practicing Dharma is more than performing rituals which require a special place or a special time, or special equipment.

「事實上,所謂法,是一種改變身心的方式,尤其是心靈。」法王說,貪心重的人,經由不斷提醒自己改變,貪心漸漸變小,這就是修行;嗔心重的人,經由不斷提醒自己改變,嗔心漸漸變小,這就是修行。「向內修持,轉變自心,才是佛法。」所以,工作、日常生活,都可以修行。

At a deeper level, the Dharma is something that transforms our minds, an ongoing process whereby we examine our minds, checking the afflictive emotions and the three mind poisons, and slowly try to become less angry, less attached and so forth. The practice of Dharma leads to a slow change in body, speech and mind from within, hence, it could be done anywhere, even while you are at work; it doesn’t require a special time.

Indeed, the kind of dharma practice where you reflect on your aspirations, your way of thinking, how you relate to other people, and how you react and connect with other people is very important.

法王說,以我自己的經驗來說,我覺得越來越忙,從事課誦的時間越來越少,「但我隨時觀察自己的心和身語行為是否利益他人,這是我不共的修持方式。」

Drawing on experience, Karmapa said that his own life seemed to be getting busier and busier, so that he felt that the time he had to work for the benefit of others and the time to meditate was shrinking. Thus his dharma practice these days involved trying to help the many people who he came across daily, being very aware of his thought processes, and attempting to live his life with the intention to benefit sentient beings.

His priority was the happiness of others, and he examined his actions, what he said, and his mind to check the fit. That in essence was his practice.

記得小時候每天都有早、午、晚課,每次至少一小時,但那時常常當成例行功課;但現在接觸到很多朋友,結了很多善緣,現在我連在個人時間、甚至睡眠時,都還會感覺到和朋友在一起,並未遠離朋友們,這對我來說,就是活生生的修行。

When he was young he had had time for formal prayers and recitation, about an hour each morning and evening. These days, with little time for formal prayers, he kept all the people whom he met in his thoughts, whether he was working, eating or sleeping. This seemed to be a very live, real and practical form of dharma practice.

以前禪修的所緣境不夠清楚,現在則活生生地在眼中、在心中,幫助別人、利益別人,現在對我是活生生、熱乎乎的東西。(接著,法王乾咳了一下,但安慰大家說,請別擔心,我還沒感冒,小時候念經念累了,就會想如果病一下多好。藏醫看病有時要看尿液,有一位喇嘛為了裝病,就把醬油倒進尿裡……我想,至少我到今天還沒這麼做吧。)

It was an important foundation for practice, keeping other sentient beings in the forefront of our minds, as if they were there before our eyes in a real and very present way, otherwise we might lose contact with the people we wanted to benefit, and become lazy in our efforts.

Another important support for practice was to use others to reduce our own self-interest, by thinking deeply about their suffering and happiness, which would lead us to develop a feeling of responsible concern for their welfare. This would not only help counterbalance our self-cherishing attitude, it would also mean that our constant preoccupation with our own welfare would diminish, and we would feel more inclined to transform ourselves.

活生生感受眾生的喜樂,你就會想改變

「不要忘記眾生,這是很重要的」,無論到世界任何地方,眼裡所見、心裡所想,無不是眾生,這是大乘修行的重點,「不忘眾生,不捨眾生,隨時憶持眾生」,這樣佛法的基礎就紮實了。

修行要先感動自己,法王提醒說,如果能夠活生生感受到眾生的苦樂,這樣你才會由衷想改變自己、調整自己的心,這樣感動自己的緣才會俱足。一般比較自我的人常想:我就是這樣啦,我有自由,也過得不錯,為什麼要改變自己?「當你想著別人,就會想要改變自己」,當你更在乎別人的苦樂,激勵自己改變的緣就具足了。

「心中放著眾生,這是很重要的」,法王說,「對眾生的關愛,像珍寶一樣放在心裡,一切煩惱的對治法,才會發生作用」,「因為我知道我心中有慈愛的珍寶,所以我真誠想改變自己來利他」。法王舉例說,當你遇到一個最愛的人,當下你所有的疑惑都消失了,其他東西也都不需要了,你決定可以跟他過一生了……菩提心,就是這樣。

一旦你有了清楚的目標之後,修持佛法並不困難;否則學佛只是會讓你變得更忙、妄念更多,只是多了一大堆見解、多認識了一大堆本尊……那只是教條式的佛法,「要在生活裡真正的利他,這才重要。」

This led to the next important aspect of practice: transforming ourselves by working on our negative mental and emotional states. It was often difficult to truly see the negative aspects of these mental and emotional states, but when you did, it was as clear as daylight that you had to do something about them. It was like falling in love. People have many different relationships, but there may not be a great commitment or there might be some confusion. Then one day you fall in love. All the earlier relationships fade into insignificance, and there’s never any question about it. You are in love with this one person and you want to spend your life with them. It’s as clear and simple as that.

The experience of Bodhichitta was also like this – a wish-fulfilling gem. When we develop bodhichitta our hearts fill with joy but until we find that wish-fulfilling gem in our hearts it can be difficult; afterwards dharma practice becomes easy and the purpose of life becomes clear.

There were many parallels between life and dharma practice. In everyday life if our goals are unclear or confused, we do not achieve what we want to achieve. Similarly, dharma practice needed a clear objective too. Thinking too much about it was not beneficial and only produced more conceptual thoughts! The crux was to work for the benefit of beings!

你和觀音菩薩「心的關連」是什麼?

法王說,常常有人來問我要修哪個本尊,修觀音好不好、修度母又如何?如果你連你和觀音菩薩「心的關連」是什麼都搞不清楚,不知道慈心而去修觀音,就只知道「他是個四隻手的人,但連怎麼和他握手都不知道」,那就像在虛空中忽然迸出一位本尊,很難落實在生活中。「所以,慈心、悲心和空性的基礎是最重要的。」

有些人是因為生活裡有了煩惱,或者是心裡空蕩蕩的,想找點東西填滿那種空虛感才學佛。不過,有些人家庭本來還算和諧,一學佛太投入,就硬要「把佛法帶進生活」,以為學了金剛乘就要把一大堆金剛鈴、金剛杵弄進家裡,結果大家都覺得你怪怪的。「其實直接把生活裡的困難拿來禪修,這才是生活裡的修行,才是把佛法融入生活。」

「所謂的法,就是調整自己、讓心轉為善的方法」法王再次總結,那誰能幫助我們達到這個目的呢?就是上師,我們要找一位具傳承、具德、擁有無謬口訣的上師。但上師分很多種──

一種是實修的上師,那就是真正的依止處;

一種是知識的老師,也值得在學問上跟隨他多聞思;

另一種是顯相的上師。所謂上師,未必是人類,逆境挫折都可能是我們的上師,連四季的變化都是我們的上師,深刻觀察並思維,會發現四季正以連續性的轉變,教導我們活生生、熱騰騰的「無常的口訣」。佛法不只是你聽聞來的,眼睛看到的,心裡所感受到的,無一不是佛法。

People often asked His Holiness what they should practice and he usually suggested the Chenresig or Tara Saddhanas, but then if they asked,

“How many arms?” or “Which colour?” it showed they’d missed the point completely, failing to comprehend the core meaning of these practices which is meditation on loving kindness and compassion in order to transform our minds. Without this understanding, any practice becomes blind faith not living dharma. Therefore when we practice dharma it has to be strongly related with our minds; it has to become one with our life.

His Holiness then suggested a different tack, which beginners might find more useful, which was to start instead from the point of our lives, look at the difficulties we are experiencing, and see if the Dharma could shed some light on them. This would certainly be less disruptive and less disturbing to our families than suddenly bringing home vajras, damarus, bells etc. and doing strange things! If we lived with the intention of being useful and helpful to other people, the dharma in our lives would become stronger, and our lives would become dharma practice.

But in order to transform our minds through dharma practice we needed to receive the pith instructions, and we needed to receive them from a genuine lama. This was someone who had realized the Dharma in their lives, someone who was a genuine refuge. There were also people at a lower level of realization with whom it was possible to study. It was said that anything that appears can be a lama – and His Holiness illustrated how the seasons could be our teacher. On a superficial level, winter meant cold weather and warm clothes, but it was also a paradigm for impermanence. If we used our eyes, there was a lot to be learned about the Dharma in life itself.

這堂課結束前,法王提醒,我們在大祈願法會上提到的中英文版《環境保護準則》小冊,現在已經可以在德噶寺書店請到了,有興趣可以去請購,出家眾可以免費請領。

His Holiness concluded the morning session by launching the booklet he had produced on protecting the environment: Environmental Guidelines for Karma Kagyu Buddhist Monasteries, Centers and Community