法王新闻 | 2009年01月

法王噶瑪巴開示:生活中的佛法〈2〉法王介紹「環保手冊」 並在答問中教導「施受法」

“Living the Dharma” Day Two

点击图片切换大图/小图

地點:印度 菩提加耶
時間:2009年01月13日
報導:黃靖雅
攝影:噶瑪善治

「我布施,所以我富足!」

第一堂課 Session one

上午9:00,法王首先用微啞的聲音說:「今天因為比哈爾省菩提加耶的加持,我感冒了。」大眾輕輕的「噢~」一聲,但是法王說,來聖地,生病也是很好的,是一種加持。

法王接著說,我今天要先介紹一下昨天講過的《噶瑪噶舉佛教寺院中心與團體的環境保護準則》小冊,內容分為五個章節、五個重點來做環境保護──

一是森林保育;

二是水資源保護;

三是野生動物保護;

四是廢棄物處理;

五是氣候變遷的對治。

第一點,森林的保育:森林對人和動物都是生命必需的所依,我們要以植栽、防止過度耕作砍伐來保護,這在藏地、漢地和印度都應該這麼做。以前寺院不知如何保護林地,有些森林甚至被賣出去、遭到破壞。

第二點,水資源保護:這在藏地非常重要,科學家也說,西藏和喜瑪拉雅山區是世界第三大水源區,要保護它免受破壞,特別是水源區的寺院,更要注意。岡底斯山是四大河流的源頭,有些流入中國,有些流入西藏,岡底斯山周圍有很多寺院,要了解保護水源是很重要的。

第三點,野生動物保護:傳統藏人喜歡穿虎皮、豹皮,但因為達賴喇嘛尊者指示,許多藏人也已不再穿了,這麼做真的保護了許多野生動物。這也與素食有關,我們至少不要因為貪慾而吃肉,因為人類吃肉,所以需要大量養雞鴨,耗費許多資源,也破壞了環境,這是要考慮的。

第四點,廢棄物的處理:這在現在的寺院也很少學習如何處理,我們要以寺院為起點,擴及整個喜瑪拉雅山區。

第五點,對治氣候變遷:西藏高原及喜瑪拉雅山區的冰河快速消失,以五倍速被破壞中,這已經嚴重影響亞洲。

法王說,我們常說,「願眾生具足樂及因,願眾生遠離苦及苦因」,但如果只是口說而不做,是沒有用的,對眾生的生活與生存息息相關的環境保護,就是這樣。

Gyalwang Karmapa dedicated the first part of the morning session to discussing his concerns over the environment. Many of those present had bought copies of his booklet, Environmental Guidelines for Karma Kagyu Buddhist Monasteries, Centres and Community.

He spoke of the need to preserve forests, the danger of glaciers in the Himalayan region shrinking, pollution of the rivers, protection of wildlife from fur-hunting, the need to be vegetarian or at least reduce the quantity of meat that we eat, and the crisis of climate change. Monasteries did not have a training or culture in waste management so he intended to provide training for them, in the hope that they could become examples to the community. If we were really committed to working for the happiness of sentient beings, we had a responsibility to protect the environment and all the limitless sentient beings therein.

問答時間

A question and answer session followed.

法王接著說,因為今天早上有些頭痛,所以我們先回答問題。

問題一:看DVD的開示或修本尊法,是不是算得到口傳?

法王答:我看連灌頂都得到了!(開玩笑的)像我們今天的教學,不只是在場的各位聽聞,現在在internet上,全世界都同步看到了;但是,我確定在現場的各位是在聽課,至於在DVD、VCD前的人是不是在聽課,那就不一定了。也就是說,除非特別的根器或特別的狀況,看DVD算是得到口傳教授,一般的狀況,「要在互相知情的狀況下,口傳才算數」,也就是傳法的上師要知道誰聽到了,而聽聞的弟子要知道上師現在是在傳法,這樣才算數,「而且如果你懷疑自己到底得到口傳了沒,那你就沒得到口傳!」

問題二:尊貴的法王,恐懼是從何而來,又去了哪裡?

法王答:要了知恐懼的對境,都是「緣起性空」的(有因緣和合的顯相,但本質是空性),是你自己的恐懼自己造出了一個害怕的對象,它並非實有,只是像水中月一樣的顯現,即使是像水中月,也需要「平靜的水面」這樣因緣和合才能顯現,了知它是緣起性空的,就可以遠離恐懼。

我小時候會害怕打雷閃電,後來知道它是什麼因、什麼緣產生的,知道它是夏天的雲層摩擦撞擊產生的,就不會再害怕。我們都是因為不了解卻忽然經驗到,才會感到害怕。

問題三:請問法王,我們應該怎麼處理負面的想法,譬如說現在來到印度,特別想念自己那個沒有污染、乾淨、舒服的家,覺得這趟旅行簡直是個「自我處罰」(現場學生大笑),現在每天都有頭痛胃痛一大堆病痛跟著我,我怎麼處理這些負面心情?

法王答:我昨天已經告訴過各位,你們有機會來到比哈爾省,是很難得的。你們來這裡並不是來郊遊野餐(picnic),不是為觀光而來,你們是為心的修持而來,頭痛胃痛都成了修心旅程中的經驗,修心的口訣才是真正要得到的。有時生點小病也不錯,證明你真的來菩提迦耶了,疾病真的是修行道上的莊嚴。但是你們還是要自己多注意,喝乾淨的水,注意食物,氣候的變化也要多留心。

During this session Gyalwang Karmapa elaborated further on how to combat the afflictive emotions. He explained how the Buddha Dharma exists to clear all the impurities in the mind – there is nothing which is not a direct antidote to the negative emotions. Different practices work on different mind poisons. In fact there are different practices and methods for different purposes and for practitioners of different capacities and different levels.

Usually, beginners try to evade confronting the mind poisons. Then the second stage is to challenge them. The third stage, when you are stronger, is to use skillful means

問題四:我們平常為什麼要特別觀修慈悲?慈悲與貪著的愛有什麼不同?

法王答:慈悲不是外在的東西,平常就要準備和培養,遇到對境,才會自然生起。

我們昨天說到貪慾的煩惱,今天再針對這些問題解說一下。

有慈悲的愛,是要給他自由,而不是控制,根據他的需要,給予全然的幫助,而不是以自己為出發點去占有。「不捨棄」是很好的,但不可以貪愛心互相占有,事情就會開始轉變。愛應該是更開放、更多的給予和自由,這樣愛和貪著就不會混淆不清。

至於瞋恨,通常我們可以清楚看到,有些人卻不想改變瞋恨的心,甚至以為這還有用處。瞋心大作的時候,可以試著想起上師的口訣,或者自己喜歡的經典,這樣對讓心平靜有幫助,「自力不夠時,可以靠外力」。上師的口訣或經典,都是我們心力不足時,可以依止的清淨「外力」。

當你發現自己越來越生氣,別再專注在那個點上,要試著改變焦點、轉移對境,否則接著你可能付諸身語的行動,開始罵人或打人了。

有個故事說,有個牧羊人因為他的一隻羊不乖,他就揍了牠,羊跳起來亂跑,結果撞到別的羊,其他的羊也開始跳起來亂跑,他就滿場追著羊打,這隻、那隻,打到他累癱了,終於停下來、忍不住笑起來,覺得自己真是蠢透了……處理瞋恨就是這樣,如果你有很多個焦點,你就不會氣到把第一隻羊殺了。

His Holiness then began a more extensive answer.

The signature of attachment was feelings such as, “I must have it” and “No one else should have it” and this was how it created suffering.

His Holiness gave the example of a couple in love,. His wife sees her husband talking to a beautiful woman. What does the wife think? That is attachment. Because it focuses on feelings such as “This is mine,” attachment is closed and restricts freedom. Genuine love means wanting joy and happiness for others – wanting what the person you love wants. Of course , even with attachment, you want to give them everything, but love also gives freedom. Attachment cannot be the basis for a happy relationship because authentic love is open not closed.

As to aggression or anger, this was far easier to recognize because our speech becomes rough, our face changes, and our whole demeanour changes. The antidote to anger was patience. Often it was difficult to tackle anger because of the mistaken view that our anger was justified, foe example after someone has been very abusive towards us. One way to defuse anger was to focus our attention elsewhere, either we could bring our Lama to mind, or we could remember certain teachings which had inspired us. If we focused on a particular incident the anger would grow stronger and stronger so it was important to break that cycle, even if it meant thinking instead about all the things we are angry about. His Holiness illustrated the point.

Once, there was a nomad trying to herd lots of frisky sheep, but they wouldn’t obey him and were leaping and gamboling all over the place. He got so angry he started hitting one of them. That didn’t help, so he hit another one, and another one, and another one…and after he had hit sixty or seventy of them he was so tired and his arm ached so much that he couldn’t continue. Then he understood how ridiculous his actions had been, his anger evaporated, and he burst into laughter.

問題五:我們如何了解到「勝義諦」?

法王答:依靠世俗諦,才能了知勝義諦,因為世俗諦的緣起顯相,有長才有短,有壞才有好,有西方才有東方,(這些相對存在、相依而存的事物)沒有一樣可以獨立存在,我們才會了解它「自性空」的本質。即使是水中月,也要靠平靜的水才能顯現。再譬如杯子,我們放水的時候,它叫水杯,放茶的時候,它叫茶杯,因為緣起的不同給了不同的名字,但杯子是一樣的,因為它的本質是空性的,所以可以做水杯,也可以做茶杯。再譬如有種草藥,人吃了有毒,但孔雀吃了羽毛卻會變漂亮,是良藥或是毒藥,就要看吃的是誰,這也是一個相對的例子。

不可以離開世俗諦,而了知勝義諦,否則容易落入斷邊;但是了知空性的人,還是能見到杯子的顯現。

Responding to a question on the two truths, ultimate and relative, His Holiness talked about dependent arising, and the relativity of everything. What is short only exists, he explained, because something longer exists. East exists because there’s a west. Nothing can be established without it having a relationship to something else. Take the example of a vase – we think of a vase as an independent object , but if we put water in it, it becomes a water bowl, if we put tea in it, it becomes a tea bowl. Talking about emptiness is also talking about dependent arising. The nature of things is emptiness. Emptiness has to be understood in terms of relativity – as the moon reflected in water. There is nothing that exists independently. A good example of our mistaken view was poisonous plants. We classify them as poisonous because we do not consider the relative nature of things – we think things are constant – but some animals eat these so-called poisonous plants and thrive. Everything is relative.