法王新闻 | 2009年01月

法王噶瑪巴開示:生活中的佛法〈3〉法王教導「金剛薩埵」及「上師相應法」

“Living the Dharma” Day Three

地點:印度 菩提加耶
時間:2009年01月14日 January 15th, 2009
報導:黃靖雅
攝影:噶瑪善治

第二堂課 Session two

下午3:00,法王首先說,我們等一下先給「菩薩戒」。

法王傳授「菩薩戒」

法王說,「菩薩戒」有各種不同的儀軌,我覺得最殊勝的是《入菩薩行論》中的偈頌。要得戒,首先要發菩提心,藉著「七重因果教授」知母、念恩等等,以及「自他交換法」生起慈心、悲心、菩提心,感知眾生的苦樂,以生起誓願救度有情出離輪迴的強烈動機,生起願、行菩提心。而且,我們不只要對受苦眾生生起慈悲心,不僅對情世間,對器世間的大自然、樹木,也都應生起慈悲心,對因為濫墾濫伐造成的破壞,對何者應做、何者不應做要有個抉擇。

一旦發了菩提心之後,為了實踐願菩提心,我願付諸行動,行持行菩提心,「這是個誓言,為此,我願次第行持六度波羅蜜,永不放棄」。

發心受「菩薩戒」利益很大,它的功德如果有色相,則充遍虛空,即使在睡眠中,也會不斷增長,這是經典清楚提到的。盡一切虛空處,只要有眾生的地方,就有煩惱,只要有煩惱的地方,就有我慈悲的對象。將如母眾生放進心中,菩提心自然遍滿一切,功德也自然遍滿一切。

法王說:「因為我對藏文的我執,我們先念藏文三次。」大眾隨法王以藏文念頌《入菩薩行論》菩提心戒文三次──

直至菩提藏,皈命諸佛前,法及菩薩眾,如是亦皈依。
如昔諸善逝,先發菩提心,於菩薩學處,悉如是而住。
如是為利生,我發菩提心,復於諸學處,次第勤修學。

「要思維已得戒」,法王為令大家了解意思,再帶領大眾念頌英文版三次。

得到菩提心戒是非常難得的,要生起歡喜心,如同寶珠在心,要不斷憶持如意寶珠般的菩提心而生歡喜,這是很重要的。「我念歡喜文,你們來感受歡喜。」

In the afternoon session, His Holiness first gave the Bodhisattva Vows, preceding this with a teaching on bodhicitta. He said there are many different liturgies for bestowing the Bodhisattva Vows, but that found in the Bodhicaryavatara is the easiest and best. He began by explaining how to generate bodhicitta in our hearts. To do this, it is important first to understand the Seven-Point Cause and Effect, and that all sentient beings have been our kind mothers. We should understand the great kindness of the mother, and feel gratitude for that, and also feel the equality of self and others and understand the importance of exchanging self with others. We need to generate strong compassion to arouse the wish to eliminate all the sufferings of beings. There are two stages to accomplish this: first to liberate oneself, and then to work to liberate others. A strong aspiration must be generated at the beginning.

His Holiness said that as we think primarily for the benefit of all suffering sentient beings, we also have to think about the container for sentient beings – this world in which all the sentient beings live. It has the capacity to provide all the necessities for sentient beings. We must be aware of the environment, and know about the destruction of the environment. He described how the forests are being destroyed in very terrible ways without any compassion or understanding, and how with wrong understanding, we were ignorant of what to get rid of and what to keep. We must know what we need to do for the benefit of others.

If we give rise to the aspiration to work for others, that is good, but we need more than that. We need to complete that aspiration by making a commitment to work for sentient beings. We should train and act in the Six Paramitas. This is what is meant by action, so we must do that according to our level, and according to the strength of our minds.

His Holiness explained that it is good to generate bodhicitta and to take the Bodhisattva Vows, but if we do not know how to work at our own level, it is not very useful. If we feel we have to do something that is beyond us, we will not be able to accomplish it, so we need to work out what is our own capacity. We are in a way inviting all sentient beings as guests, so it is therefore very important not to give up on our promise for them. We need to work step by step, otherwise, if we give up, it is like deceiving sentient beings. His Holiness emphasized that we must work and train step by step without giving up.

Generally, if we truly generate bodhicitta, it is said that if that bodhicitta had form, it would not be able to be contained within the whole of space, and that even if we are sleeping and not doing anything, great benefit is always occurring. His Holiness said that this description of the purpose and benefit of bodhicitta is not mere words, but has a very deep meaning. It means that wherever there is space, there are sentient beings, and wherever there are sentient beings there is karma, kleshas and there is suffering, so it is essential to have compassion and kindness. Bodhicitta covers all the places where there are sentient beings, and sentient beings are wherever there is space, so bodhicitta is everywhere.

His Holiness talked about pre-1959 Tibet, and said that most people there did not know about the world, but they did have an understanding that wherever there is space, there are sentient beings who need to be loved, who need to be freed from their suffering, who need to be covered by compassion and kindness. Therefore, when we generate this mind of enlightenment, the love covers wherever space covers, so it is understandable to say that when we generate bodhicitta, the merit is as vast as space. It is right to say that. His Holiness said that there was nothing more to say, our lives are full of talk, so let’s just do it, do it. He said that he would recite the verses for taking the Bodhisattva Vow first three times in Tibetan because of his ‘ego’ [he said this in English], as he is not so good at reciting in English, and then once in English, to make the meaning clear.

After bestowing the Bodhisattva Vows, His Holiness said we have been very fortunate to receive the bodhisattva attitude, and we should rejoice as if we have received a great treasure. If small negative things occur, our possessing the Bodhisattva Vows should make it easier to let go and deal with such small things, so we should value it and rejoice. We should feel that now we will really do something concrete.

金剛薩埵及上師相應法

接下來,「四不共加行」部分,我們主要是要講「金剛薩埵」和「上師相應法」。這是以第五世夏瑪巴仁波切所著的法本為依據所作的法本。修持金剛薩埵主要在淨除罪障──

自身頂處蓮月座墊上,
上師金剛薩埵白端嚴,
一面二臂右持金剛杵,
左手持鈴雙足跏趺坐。

His Holiness then turned to the short Preliminary Practice Text that he composed, based on the 5th Sharmapa’s Ngondro text, and began to teach the Vajrasattva practice. He explained that, basically the purpose of Vajrasattva practice is to purify negative deeds and obscurations. If we rely on the four antidotes or powers, our practice becomes more strong and effective:

法王此處提示,「若具四力而修,罪障確可淨除」。這四力是:
一 依止力:向上依止佛菩薩,向下依止眾生。
二 對治力:以善行為對治法,以此法門能對治煩惱。
三 出罪力:發露己罪的懺悔力。
四 誓不再犯力。

1. The power of the support

2. The power of relying on the antidote

3. The power of repenting the negative deeds

4. The power of resolving not to repeat the negative deeds

先念「皈依發菩提心」,然後觀想與上師無別的本尊金剛薩埵,於行者自身頂上,因強力祈請而示現。「清晰觀想本尊心間月輪上『吽』字,周邊有百字明咒咒縵圍繞,甘露續流由本尊身右足拇指降淋,由自行者頂梵穴而進入自身,將心投入於觀想一切罪障如污墨、如煙汁般形象流出,全身充滿甘露瓊霖。」接著,觀想全身透明,罪障清淨。這裡可以針對特定的煩惱,或要懺悔的破戒、違犯等等,觀想淨除,並恢復戒律。

The first power of the support refers to the Triple Gem in which we take refuge. We should briefly take refuge before starting Vajrasattva practice.

The second power of relying on the antidote is the actual visualization and recitation of the mantra of Vajrasattva. This practice is outlined in the text. We should feel the presence of Vajrasattva above the crown of our heads, as the union of compassion and emptiness. His Holiness stressed the importance of feeling that Vajrasattva is really there. We should feel that our negative deeds are purified through our strong request, after which nectar flows through the big toe of Vajrasattva, enters our Brahma aperture, and fills our body. We should feel that all obscurations are completely purified and that our body is clear like a bottle. In particular, His Holiness said, if we have committed some very serious negative action, or have broken vows and samayas, we should think of them, feel they are purified and feel there is really an effect.

法王此處特別再針對「四力」的三、四兩力加以解說──

出罪力:就是後悔心,於過去罪業只要有一念後悔心,就如同膿包切開,不會再造成傷害。

誓不再犯力:有了後悔心,如果沒有具有誓不再犯力、未來絕不再犯的強烈發心,則不易完全淨除。要有未來即使犧牲生命我都不再犯的決心,如此才能根除清淨。至於會不會再犯,就看後悔的心強不強烈。

接著,法王提醒,如果有破戒障礙,可藉此淨除,因為戒律非常重要,如果違犯戒律,再有覺受也沒用;而如果今生持戒清淨,即使因未修持而未證預流果,來世只要聽聞一句佛法偈頌,就能立證見道位。而在密乘,只要不犯三昧耶戒,雖然今生沒做什麼修持,也能在八世最多十六世之內成佛。「違背誓言,對自己打擊是很大的」,因此要透過此法,淨除破戒的罪障,恢復此戒。

法王再次提醒,修持金剛薩埵「觀想本尊清楚很好,但如果能具備四力而懺悔是更好的」。

The third power is to actually having strong repentance for the negative deeds we have committed. His Holiness emphasized the importance of this part of the practice, and drew the comparison of having a serious illness and undergoing surgery or treatment to remove it. In the same way, the negative deeds must really be taken out and eradicated.

Making a commitment not to repeat the negative action again in the future is the fourth power, and His Holiness said that if that intention is not present, however much we purify, the purification process is not complete. This fourth power is the way to totally remove the negative deeds. He said that undertaking not to repeat the action is a very difficult thing to do, but in order to truly resolve not to repeat the negative action, we must see the negative aspect of the deed, have revulsion for it, and strongly resolve not to repeat it. This is the basis of true purification.

The practice of Vajrasattva is used to purify all negative deeds, but it is especially important and relevant for the purification of broken vows and samayas. The samayas are the basis of our realizations, and it is of utmost importance to abide in the samayas and commitments, and not to overlook our breaches, but purify them immediately. In Vinaya, if we are keeping the Vinaya vows, we may not obtain a high level of attainment such as Stream Enterer in this life, but in the next life we will attain such a level. This is clear from the life story of Shariputra. He heard one word of Dharma and immediately attained the Path of Seeing. In the Vajrayana also, if we keep our samayas, even if we do not meditate or practice much, in eight or sixteen lives we will attain the Path of Seeing.

His Holiness stressed that the main point in Vajrasattva practice is not visualizing the colours or mudras, but the attitude of repentance and the resolve not to repeat the negative action. In Vajrayana practice, it is important to have clear visualization, but here in Vajrasattva practice, if the four powers are not there, it is not true purification practice. He explained that the main long mantra in the Vajrasattva practice is the one to be accumulated, while the short mantra should just be recited a few times at the end of the session. He also said that prostrations seem to be very difficult for some foreigners, so if they are really a problem, at least 1,000 prostrations should be completed. He cautioned, however, that if possible 100,000 prostrations should be completed, and only commuted to 1,000 if there is real physical difficulty.

上師相應法

接著,法王說,時間到了,那就沒辦法說「上師相應法」了。台下學生整齊的輕聲喊「Please!」「Please!」,法王笑著說:「stop!」接著又開玩笑地改了一個咒語說「Om stop Soha!」,好吧,大家撒嬌成功,法王繼續說「上師相應法」。

在說「上師相應法」之前,法王先提醒,「四不共加行」他說可以改一千次的只有「大禮拜」,其他的都要如傳統做滿十萬遍,金剛薩埵主要計數的是百字明咒長咒,「大禮拜如果有人要做十萬遍,我也會很歡喜」。

在「上師相應法」部分,首先是「皈依發心」,「要真正感覺此心與菩提心合而為一,再修上師相應法」。「迅即得入聖化的上師瑜伽有二」,一是不共的那洛六法,一是共的儀軌。

法王說,金剛乘之所以「快速道」,主要源於對上師的信心,「上師相應法」傳統上是要觀上師為持金剛的相貌,也有一種說法是,觀想上師是人的形象,可以迅速獲得加持;但這裡為了消除上師是凡夫的想法,所以要觀上師為「一切之遍主持金剛」,而觀自己為金剛亥母的形象,在了知方便智慧本質是無二一如的確信中,生起顯空不二的金剛亥母相,也就是「一切轉為空性,空性之中生起金剛亥母相,而於行者自身化現的金剛亥母上方,顯現持金剛相之上師」,接著對上師持金剛作「七支供養」。

法王再次解釋此處的觀想要點說,要了解我們一顆心上同時具有方便與智慧無二的本質,但還不是證得,而是「想著一切轉為空性,再從一切是空性的心中,顯現清晰的顯相」,同一念心上,同時具備這兩者(空與明),未來法身色身無二的果位就可同時證得,密乘被稱為「果位乘」、「快速道」的原因就在這裡。
當行者觀想自身為金剛亥母,有兩個要點──
一 觀想要很清楚;
二 要生起佛慢。

法王提醒,觀想要很清晰,「但佛慢別生起太大」,免得接下來要向上師作七支供養,你會想我已經是金剛亥母、已經是本尊了,為什麼要向上師作供養。供養上師時,要強烈的想著上師的功德,向與佛四身無別的上師,作「七支供養」。

At this point in the teaching, His Holiness said that people had also asked for teachings on Guru Yoga, but that time had run out. He jokingly said, ‘OM STOP SVAHA’. But, after loud persuasive cries from the audience, he began again to teach.

His Holiness said that there is the Uncommon Guru Yoga which is part of the Six Yogas of Naropa, and the Common Guru Yoga, which is the fourth practice of the Preliminary Practices. Vajrayana is a short cut, the quick path, and its main essence is devotion. Sometimes it is said that it is more effective to visualize the Lama as he is now, in living form, without transforming him into a Buddha, but here in the Preliminary Practices the Lama is visualized as Dorje Chang. We visualize the Lama as Dorje Chang so we do not see him as an ordinary being. His Holiness explained that in Vajrayana, we transform our ordinary way of seeing things, and so we also visualize ourselves as a yidam. In the Karma Kamtsang tradition, Vajravarahi is the principal yidam. The correct way to visualize is to hold the view of the union of emptiness and appearance simultaneously – wisdom and skillful means together. If they are separated, there is not much good effect.

Then, visualizing the Lama on top of the head as Dorje Chang, we should recite the Seven Branch Practice as an offering to the Lama.

When we practice the Vajrayana and visualize the yidam, the practice has to be imbued with the view of the union of wisdom and skillful means. We should see all as emptiness, and even if we have not a full understanding of what that means, we should think of it as much as possible. Because of that view, the right way of understanding, then that clarity, that consciousness transforms into the deity. The one consciousness performs two activities at the same time: the activities of skillful means and wisdom.

The deity has the qualities of the result – the enlightened being. Those qualities appear as the deity. This is the very special characteristic of Vajrayana. This is its speciality, to use the result at the beginning. In Sutrayana, we talk of the inseparability of wisdom and compassion, but the cause being the result is not elaborated upon.

His Holiness emphasized that bodhicitta has to be there too. We generate ourselves as the yidam with clarity and divine pride. We visualize the Lama on our head; maybe the pride becomes less, he said, but the clarity must be very strong. At this point we offer the Seven Branches to the Lama. We should see the Lama as the embodiment of the Four Kayas, but if we don’t know how to see this well, we should think of any positive qualities the Lama possesses and concentrate on those, and then make prayers from our heart. From the three places of the Lama, light comes and enters into our three places.

接著,「上師非常歡喜,就放光加持,我們的罪障就淨除了──我們就講完了!」法王快馬加鞭地作了結語,「再不講完,我們石頭都來不及給,要用丟的了」。

法王接著說,各位來自56個國家,我真的很高興,我沒有準備得很好,但見上一面比什麼都重要,希望很快再見到你們,也許是下次祈願法會。

我們這些日子,在祈願法會中,念誦了許多祈願文,我彷彿看到一個景象,看到空氣中,充滿了金色的慈悲祈願的文字,這些慈悲善願把我們聚集在一起,它們也會長久住留在世間。接著,上來領「石頭壇城」的石頭吧,祈願這些石頭成為黑暗中的火炬,這是我的祈願。

最後,在進行完身語意與八吉祥獻供之後,大眾一一上台獻哈達、供養、領取「石頭壇城」的石頭,每個石頭都裝在精緻的小錦盒裡,裡面細心地付了來自何地的小紙條,大家一拿到,無不像對獎一樣好奇打開,看看盒裡充滿加持的小石頭,出身101國的何處……就這樣,以充滿想像力的最後一筆,結束了3天西方弟子課程,也為噶瑪巴半個月來從「華人宗門實修」到「大祈願法會」再到「西方弟子課程」的完整教授,以一顆顆有故事的石頭,畫上詩一樣有餘味的句點。

His Holiness then abruptly stopped and said there would be no time to distribute the stones, and then he would have to throw the stones at everyone! He told how the stones have come from 101 countries and that has made him very happy. He said that what he actually says is not so important, but that the main thing is to see and meet everyone and be in the same place. He expressed his happiness at seeing everyone with his two eyes. His Holiness said he enjoyed that we all shared these three days of teachings together, and that he feels he has made a connection with every one of the participants, especially by reading and answering the questions. He thanked everyone for their questions and said even if he had no time to answer them all, he has read them all. He expressed his wish that he will see everyone again and again, and that perhaps everyone will return to the next Kagyu Monlam.

His Holiness said that the assembly should make prayers and dedicate the goodness that has been accumulated. He said that during the Kagyu Monlam, when everyone performed the aspirations and prayers, he hoped that they were not just words but that those words would take form in golden letters that emanate out from our hearts and spread throughout the whole world and give blessings and benefit.

Concerning the stones, His Holiness said that when he distributes the stones to each person, and wherever we bring those stones, carrying them with us to other countries, there will also spread the message of love and loving kindness in all corners of the world.

His Holiness said that in his heart he feels our presence, and it is his hope that we will become like a great light that shines in the darkness so that he can see all of us wherever we are, like stars in the sky, and that the shimmering of those stars will clear away the darkness of the world, and remove all the suffering and sorrow in the world.