法王新闻 | 2009年01月

法王噶瑪巴開示:生活中的佛法〈3〉法王教導「金剛薩埵」及「上師相應法」

“Living the Dharma” Day Three

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地點:印度 菩提加耶
時間:2009年01月14日 January 15th, 2009
報導:黃靖雅
攝影:噶瑪善治

「與上師相應前,先與菩提心合一!」

長壽法會圓滿 3 Days Puja for His Holiness’ Coming Obstacle Year

January 12th, 13th, 14th, 2009

今天是淨除法王本命年障礙的「長壽法會」圓滿日。

這場緊接著大祈願法會之後舉行的法會,由法王辦公室主辦,大祈願法會誦經僧眾原班人馬,連續三天在菩提大塔前原地,修持白度母、長壽佛、尊勝佛母等長壽法,暨瑪哈嘎拉等除障法,淨除傳統藏人認為的法王本命年障礙,今天是圓滿日獻供。上午8:00,法王赴法會現場,接受功德主身語意和八吉祥獻供,所以今天在德噶寺的「西方弟子課程」延後一小時上課。

Tsurphu Labrang has organized three days puja for His Holiness coming obstacle year. The prayer was sited under the Bodhi tree where all the monks who attended Kagyu Monlam Chenmo were present.

On the first day of the puja Kangyur and Dolma Bumtsar puja was made, Gonpo Tsog-bum was on second day and on the third day Säng puja and Tsurphu Labrang offered Ten-shug (Long live) and Mandala to His Holiness. His Holiness attended for a short period on the third day, Ten-shug offering was led by General Secretary Drupon Rinpoche followed by Chamsing La and others. After finishing the Tenshug His Holiness return back to Tergar and continued the teaching.

第一堂課 Session one

上午10:00,課程一開始,法王就問,有誰要受「菩提心戒」(菩薩戒),雖然很多人在「華人宗門實修」已受戒,仍有很多人當場舉手,法王就說那好,我明天傳「菩薩戒」。法王再問,那有人要受居士五戒嗎?就只有幾個舉手,法王說,那我們私人會面時間再授好了。現在還是先回答問題好了,問題太多了。

His Holiness began the last day of the teachings for foreign students by announcing that he would bestow Refuge, the lung of the Preliminary Practice text that he composed last year, and also bestow Bodhisattva Vows, but first he decided to devote the entire morning session to questions and answers.

問答時間

問題一:請問法王,念誦「噶瑪巴千諾」有什麼利益?

法王答:「噶瑪」是業、事業的意思,「巴」是指人,意思是「行佛事業者」「行持利眾佛事業的人」。第一世法王杜松虔巴16歲出家,得到淨觀,佛菩薩都蒞臨,十萬空行以頭髮編成寶冠供養,他因此得到「噶瑪巴」這個名號。其實一切金剛阿闍梨、上師都是在幫助眾生種善業種子,都是在行佛事業,所以「噶瑪巴」也可以說是一切上師的名號。

佛陀曾說:「未來當教法式微時,我會以金剛阿闍梨的身分出現教化眾生。」所以一切上師都可以視為佛的化身。「將眾生心中的善引導出來,開啟心中的善種子以利益眾生,這就是『噶瑪巴』的意思。」

「千諾」的意思,是「鑑知我」,我們要不斷憶念、祈請上師,要像密勒日巴一樣,從內心深處悲切的呼喚出來,不一定要呼喚出聲音,主要是心裡呼喊,口念是為了幫助自己生起那種殷切的憶念上師之心。

The first question concerned the profound meaning of reciting ‘Karmapa Khyeno’. His Holiness began his answer by explaining the meaning of ‘karma’: activity, or action, and ‘pa’: one who performs that activity.

He told how 100,000 Dakinis wove the black hat from their hair, consecrated it, and offered it to the first Karmapa, Dusum Khyenpa. He was the one who performed all the activities of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas of the three times and ten directions. His Holiness also said that it does not need to be one particular individual who is called ‘Karmapa’, but that it can be a general name for all Vajra Masters who do the activities of the Buddha. It can be regarded as a title for all genuine masters. The Buddha had prophesied that when the Dharma is nearing extinction, he would come in the form of Vajra Masters to perform his Buddha activity.

The activity of the Buddhas is the activity that brings out the white, or positive, side of people, and that brings out the Buddha nature of all beings. So, when we recite ‘Karmapa Khyeno’, the purpose is to bring out the white or light side of our nature.

‘Khyeno’ has the meaning of entreating, ‘please think of me’. The purpose of this entreaty is also to remember the positive qualities of the lama again and again and to pray to the lama to remember us. It is not necessary to recite aloud, but from the heart. Milarepa said: ‘When I am alone, I call to my lama from my heart’. This answer was followed by a couple of questions that His Holiness said he would answer at a later time, and then there was a question about how people who are non-Buddhist can be helped when they are coming close to the time of their death. His Holiness replied by saying that whether one has entered the Buddhist Path or not, everyone has the opportunity to be reborn in a positive state. It is not necessary to practice Buddhism to take a positive rebirth. The most important thing is the state of the mind at the time of death. So, for those around the dying person, it is very good to create the circumstances for the dying person to have a positive state of mind. Even if the person has not practiced extensively during their lifetime, if they have a positive state of mind at their time of death, this can make a great difference and is very helpful. His Holiness told the story of a butcher who killed many animals during his life, but when nearing his death, he heard about the Buddha and was so inspired that he passed away with one hand in the prostration mudra. When he was reborn, he took the form of a piglet, but that piglet had one human hand. He was taken to a monastery to live, and his life was saved. His Holiness emphasized that this was a true story and that he had seen a photograph of the small pig with the human hand.

現在誰有「四不共加行」那本書?(台下華人弟子傳上法王所著的「四不共加行」法本)。下一題。

問題四:請問法王,我們應該如何協助臨終者,尤其是非佛教徒?

法王答:怎麼是個更嚴肅的問題!無論是不是佛教徒,要導引他投生善道,臨終之時,要幫助他不要生起惡念,要生善念,因為死亡之時,心念的力量很大。

有個故事說,有個屠夫雖然從事殺業,但他有幸在臨終之前聽聞佛法,而且生起信心,但那時他已經病得很虛弱,想合掌頂禮,只能舉起一隻手。他死後,家人都同時夢見他托夢說,鄰居家會生一隻小豬,那隻豬會長一隻人手,家人去找,果真找到一隻長了一隻人手的豬,就趕快買來放生。那一隻人手,就是因為他臨終之時,對佛法生起一念虔敬,想頂禮而舉起的那隻手。所以臨終一念很重要,要幫助他生善念。

法王口傳「四不共加行」

接著,法王口傳法王所著版本的「四不共加行」。

法王開玩笑說,這是我為自己,就寫了簡短版的,傳統的太長,想念完都很難。很多人在修「四不共加行」,今天下午我會說說「金剛薩埵」和「上師相應法」。去年我說「上師相應法」不可以錄音,今天下午是一般性的介紹,希望對四加行的行者有幫助。

(此時,從大殿外飄進一陣飯菜香味,法王說,今天姊姊似乎做了菜,今天我們姊弟想請大家吃飯吧,但我從沒做過飯。)

A couple more questions were shelved by His Holiness, and then he bestowed the lung for the Preliminary Practices. He said that the students have come from many faraway places and need to take back with them something so they can continue to practice. Many people are starting to do their Ngondro practices now, so he planned to teach Vajrasattva and Guru Yoga in the afternoon session. Last time His Holiness taught the Ngondro, he said he had not permitted video or recording of his teachings on Guru Yoga, so this time, he would teach in such a way that it could be recorded.

法王傳授「皈依戒」

法王說,現在介紹一下為什麼要皈依,其實在我們生活裡,已經有「皈依」的概念,其實是指依靠,就像小孩子要靠父母的照顧,這指的是心的希望和信心,就像小孩子受到驚嚇,會反射式的叫媽媽,在輪迴的痛苦中,我們也希望有個名號可以呼喊,有個心靈的依靠處。三寶,就是這個內在皈依的心靈依靠處。

有個故事說,有位上師有很多弟子,弟子就對他說,大家大小瑣事都找你,你會太累,上師說「那我可以到珠穆朗瑪峰去閉關,大家就找不到我了」,弟子說,不行,那裡現在人去登山(說到這裡,法王就問,紐西蘭那位著名的登山家是誰呀,現場有紐西蘭弟子開心的回答);上師就說「那我到月球上去好了」,弟子又說,那更不行,那裡現在科學家都上去了,你會變得太出名,會更麻煩;最後上師想了一個好辦法,他說:「那我就告訴弟子們,上師不在外面,在你的心裡,有什麼事,問你自己的心吧。」

佛陀已經圓寂2500年了,但我們不用悲傷,代表佛身語意的人還在,如果我們實修這些教法,依止正法上師,就和親近佛陀、聽聞教法是沒有不同的。

人類之所以比其他道的眾生,智力更好,主要有三點──
一 祖先傳承的延續性;
二 人類自己的智力;
三 人與人之間的互助、友誼。

三寶也是這樣的──
一 佛:就是智慧傳承的延續,就像有經驗的醫生,可以救我們出離病苦;
二 法:就像我們得到無苦的妙藥,但要自己去實修,就像把藥吃下去;
三 僧:就是同甘苦、共患難的朋友,修行道上,法友的幫助是很重要的。

以「道路」來比喻──
一 佛:是修行道上的導師、嚮導;
二 法:就是修持的道路、方法;
三 僧:就是修持道上的朋友。

「好,現在想受皈依戒的人,能跪的都跪下來。」全體學生,連工作人員,都一起跪了下來,法王驚喜的用英文開玩笑說:「Oh,All!my goodness!」,接著大眾隨法王念誦藏文皈依文三次:「皈依佛,皈依法,皈依僧」。念畢,法王說,受戒有兩種:一種是皈依,一種是皈依戒,你現在可以決定你要得哪種戒。

法王說,可能昨天講了太多「施受法」,今天頭痛,下午會說皈依的學處,就是何者該做,何者不該做。

各位從不同國家遠道而來,應該準備一點東西讓你們帶回去,我會說些前行和禪修的方式,同時會送給大家一個小禮物,請大家把今年祈願法會「石頭壇城」的石頭帶回世界各地去,將喜樂和和平送到世界各個角落,但不一定是拿到自己國家的,也許美國人拿到伊拉克石頭(西方學生大喊Ye!),這樣也很好。

Finally, His Holiness gave Refuge Vows to the assembly, explaining first the purpose of going for refuge. He explained that Refuge means that we can find support and safety, like the refuge that our mothers or parents who love us very much show to us. By taking refuge, we feel encouraged, and we receive a new hope, assurance and courage. These days, the world is passing through many crises, and people feel they can have no confidence or security, and nothing they can depend on. Through finding a true refuge, new hope and new confidence can be generated.

To go for refuge is similar to a small child running to his/her mother, and spontaneously calling ‘Ma’, when something undesirable happens. In the same way, when we face the sufferings and difficulties of samsara and the great problems of the world, and we feel there is no refuge or protection, we need to find not just an external refuge, but an internal, spiritual refuge, to give us inner strength and protection.

Buddha Shakyamuni passed away more than 2,500 years ago, and so today we cannot find him, but the power of his teachings remains. His radiance and his representations exist today. When we practice, it is not enough that the teachings of the Buddha are here; it is necessary to practice loving kindness and compassion. We need to use it, rely on it, and study with genuine masters. If we do this, there is no difference between that and meeting the Buddha himself. If we can do this, we will find protection and confidence within ourselves.

His Holiness made a comparison about the three Refuges. He said that the human brain has advanced a great deal and that three reasons can be posited for this development. Firstly, the experiences of past generations have been transmitted to us; we have learnt from previous generations. Secondly, we have not just copied, but we have used our own intellects and found new ways of doing things through our own wisdom. Lastly, life in this world is full of ups and downs, sufferings and positive experiences. We rely on friends and companions to share our tough and good times together, and for our support and progress. So, in the same way, we need the experiences of the Buddhas of the past to give us the knowledge of how to free ourselves from suffering and pain and to find lasting peace and happiness. This is the first refuge. The second refuge is the Dharma, the teachings that help us work with ourselves to find happiness. Then the friends with whom we can work together, with whom we can share support on the Path, represent the third refuge. So with these three refuges, we are on the Dharma Path; we are practicing a spiritual Path. We should feel that the Buddha is the Teacher, the Dharma is the Path and the Sangha is the spiritual friend with whom we go together.

His Holiness advised those taking refuge to carefully observe the Refuge Vows, to carefully follow what is prescribed and to avoid what is proscribed. He then completed the morning session by saying that the stones that had been brought from all over the world to form the stone altar that has stood beneath the Bodhi Tree during the Kagyu Monlam, have been imbued with blessings. He would distribute each stone to the participants at the end of the afternoon session so that they can take those stones out all over the world to carry each of our prayers and to spread the blessings of peace.