法王新闻 | 2009年12月
地點：印度 菩提迦耶 德噶寺 Mahabodhi Stupa, Bodhgaya
時間：2009年12月20日 December 20, 2009
為期三天的法王噶瑪巴「外國弟子課程」，今天12月20日起，以每天上午9:00 -11:00、下午3:00-5:00兩堂課，進行三天，至22日止，有來自52國的1 ,500位東西方弟子，齊聚一堂，聽聞法王 噶瑪巴開示。德噶寺大殿課程現場，有九國譯師，以FM收音方式同步為各國弟子翻譯，讓法王同時「悉以諸音而說法」。
The following summary of the morning’s teachings is based on Ringu Trulku Rinpoche’s translation from Tibetan into English, except where the Gyalwang Karmapa spoke directly in English.
The teachings should have begun promptly at nine o’clock. Gyalwang Karmapa was seated expectantly on his majestically high, intricately carved and gilded throne. The sound crew was confident. Hours of preparation had gone into setting up the sound system: microphones, speakers, and the FM translation transmission system. At the final dress rehearsal everything had worked perfectly, but now suddenly, it took on alife of its own and began emitting high-pitched squeals, squeaks and whines. The audience sat patiently while the sound crew dashed back and forth, fretting over banks of equipment, antennae, cables and microphones. His Holiness smiled, pulled faces, and tentatively tapped his microphone. Finally the problems were resolved, and the teachings were under way.
Having greeted everyone warmly, Gyalwang Karmapa explained why he had chosen this particular text – Nagarjuna’s Letter to a Friend – because, not only did it thoroughly cover the philosophy of Madhyamika, but it was mainly an instruction for householders on how to practice dharma. In ancient India householders who held the five precepts would study the text. It was His Holiness’ hope that this teaching would provide a new perspective for laystudents on how to be a householder and practice the dharma at the same time. A new edition of the text, containing the original Tibetan and translations into Hindi, Chinese, Korean, Spanish, English, French and German, had been published specially for the occasion. He pointed out the illustration depicting Nagarjuna on the front cover which he himself had drawn and wryly commented that some people had complained, “The face doesn’t show much character and the body looks like a rock.” He explained that, although he hoped to be able to go through the whole text, there would not be enough time to cover all the stanzas, so his objective would be to convey the essential meaning, stopping to elaborate on some points in detail but glossing over others.
Turning to the text, Gyalwang Karmapa then read and began his commentary on the first three verses which form an introduction to the teaching and more detailed instructions, and request people to listen to the teachings.
第1偈 Stanza One:
具德我演如如教，Listen now to these few lines of noble song
為生福愛而興頌，That I’ve composed for those with many virtues, fit for good,
真善宜應可審聽，To help them yearn for merit springing from
此頌名為聖祇底。The sacred words of He Who’s Gone toBliss.
為了您這位具有功德的真善之人，讓您能生起善功德，我造了這部論頌， 請您好好諦聽呀， 這部論頌所說的，都是佛陀的「聖人之言」。
The Karmapa explained that its author, Nagarjuna, was a great scholar who, it is said, lived during the 1st or second century CE. The main exponent of the Madhyamika school of Buddhist philosophy, he wrote Letter to a Friend, a text focussing on the six paramitas, to his friend, a South Indian king called Surabhibhadra. This is one of the many texts written by him preserved in Tibetan literature, which include several commentaries on sutra, and other important texts on tantra, demonstrating that he himself was practising both. It was he who composed the Mula-madhyamaka-karika which is the foundational text on Madhyamika. It was he who brought the Perfection of Wisdom sutras to the Mahayana tradition. There are two accounts of how this happened. One tells how the King of the Nagas gave these books to Nagarjuna. The other, found in a Chinese souce, is from a biography of Nagarjuna written by the great Indian scolar, Kumarajiva, who travelled to China and translated many Buddhist texts into Chinese. According to Kumarajiva, Nagarjuna had a vision in which he entered a jewelled palace where he met a great boddhistatva who showed him many caskets, containing sutras which he had never seen before. When he rose from this vision he wrote down what he had read —the 100,000 Stanza Perfection of Wisdom Sutra.
Although the letter was written specifically for the king it also applies to others as well, including ourselves, commented the Gyalwang Karmapa. In the first stanza Nagarjuna says that all his instructions come from the sacred words of the Buddha himself and from no other source, and their purpose is to generate the yearning to do the positive.
第2偈 Stanza Two:
隨何木等雕佛像，The wise will always honour and bow down
諸有智者咸供養，To Buddha statues, though they’re made of wood;
縱使我詩非巧妙，So too, although these lines of mine be poor,
依正法說勿當輕。Do not feel scorn, they teach the Holy Way.
這一頌意思是說：不管用什麼木頭來雕刻佛像， 所有有智慧的人都會供養，（因為所雕的都是珍貴的佛像）； 所以縱使我寫的詩偈並不巧妙， 但這是依正法所說，您千萬別輕忽呀。
Even if a statue of Buddha is not made of precious materials, wise people still honour the image. Similarly, though these instructions were written by a simple monk, the source is the Buddha, so it is worthwhile listening to them.
第3偈 Stanza Three:
王雖先解如如教，While you have surely learned and understood
更聞佛語增勝妙，The Mighty Buddha’s many lovely words,
猶如粉壁月光輝，Is it not that something made of chalk
豈非鮮明益姝妙。By moonlight lit shines glowing whiter still.
這一頌意思是說：善逝如來的教法，不管是否曾經聽聞過，再次聽聞都是有助益的， 國王您之前雖已了解佛法， 再次聽聞，對您的修行更有幫助，這是非常殊勝美妙的； 就像月光照耀在白色的粉牆上， 豈不是更鮮明美麗嗎？
The text refers to the Great Muni , the one of great capacity who can defeat the kleshas, the afflictions,so Nagarjuna says that even though you may already know the teachings of the Great Sage, it is worth heeding these verses because a chalk or plastered building gleams clearly and brightly in moonlight.
His Holiness explained that it is important to know about what we don’t know, but even the things we know have to be internalised. This is the threefold process of hearing or studying, thinking, and meditating. Initially we have to study, applying our wisdom and our intellect.
第4偈 Stanza Four:
佛法并僧眾，Six things there are the Buddhas have explained,
施戒及與天，And all their virtues you must keep in mind:
一一功德聚，The Buddha, Dharma,Sangha, bounteous acts,
佛說應常念。And moral laws and gods-each one recall.
以下是進入「正行」。這一偈，是講佛說「六隨念」，意思如下：隨時憶念佛法僧三寶， 隨念布施、戒律及天人（因善行所生的善果）， 每一種隨念都會聚集功德， 所以佛說我們應常常作這六種憶念。
The fourth verse introduces the actual instructions, which are organised into three main topics. The first topic is the practice of positive virtues, the second is understanding the nature of samsara and feeling renunciation, and the third is seeing the benefits of liberation. The first general instructions are common to householders and monastics: six things to be mindful of the Buddha, the Dharma, the Sangha, ethical behaviour, giving, and deities.
Gyalwang Karmapa stopped momentarily and surveyed the assembly hall, then commented in English on the fact that the traditional tea was not being provided during the foreign teachings.
“No tea break, “ he observed, “I hope my words become tea.”
He then began to discuss the meaning in the Buddhist tradition of taking refuge in the three objects of refuge: Buddha, Dharma and Sangha.
There was a further exchange at this point between the Gyalwang Karmapa and the audience because at the FM transmission stopped working properly and members of the audience were gesticulating anxiously that they couldn’t hear.
“Can you hear me?” asked the Karmapa, looking down over the audience, who shook their heads. When he realised that they couldn’t hear the translations, he quipped in English,“Is it the FM not working or the mind not working?” Everyone laughed. He then advised us to try to meditate on patience while the sound crew worked to rectify the problem.
A few minutes later, the teaching resumed and Gyalwang Karmapa continued his commentary on taking refuge. He said that generally it can be difficult to differentiate between Buddhists and non-Buddhists, but that refuge, if properly understood, provides a demarcation line. Three things had to be considered: the person who takes refuge, the objects of the refuge, and the nature of the refuge. With reference to the first, those who go for refuge can be categorised according to the three capacities of beings. Those of small capacity take refuge with the motivation that they do not want to suffer in the lower realms. Those of medium capacity have understood the nature of samsara as suffering or unsatisfactoriness and wish to liberate themselves. Those of great capacity , because of their immense compassion, are motivated by the wish to liberate all sentient beings from samsara.
Earlier, during the Gunchoe teachings His Holiness had raised the question whether those who do not believe in rebirth can be classified as Buddhists. He now returned to this dilemma again, questioning whether it was possible or meaningful for people who do not believe in rebirth and cyclic existence to take refuge. He was unsure what its function could be for such people. He also clarified the purpose of differentiating between people of different capacities. It would be wrong to think in terms of one being better than another, which might lead us to try to do something beyond our capability. The categories were there to help us. We needed to examine our own mindstate and decide which was the most suitable starting point for us. Then we would be able to make a natural progression, step-by-step, based on our aspirations at that point in time. It would also be wrong to look down on others because they had different aspirations.
Moving on to the objects of refuge, the Gyalwang Karmapa first considered the historical Buddha. Born more than 2500 years ago, a prince who enjoyed a protected life of luxury, he renounced samsara, underwent hardship during six years of meditation, then finally achieved enlightenment. This, he explained, is the biography of the Buddha as a human being, a bhikkshu who then became a Buddha. The Tibetan word for Buddha – sangye – has two parts: sang means to awaken from ignorance and gye means vastness in the way that mind or wisdom becomes vast.
At this point Gyalwang Karmapa made a Hindi/Sanskrit pun. In Hindi the word budhu means idiot, but change the spelling slightly and the word becomes buddha, thus we can all become Buddhas from budhus.
The supreme emanation Buddha revealed the Four Noble Truths to his five disciples in Sarnath, and at this point they experienced the true Dharma. The Dharma has two parts: true cessation and true path which means the experience of liberation and the path. Cessation occurs when all karma is exhausted and negative emotions completely extinguished. His Holiness emphasised that cessation was not to be understood in a nihilistic way, as a form of annihilation, but rather as a completely joyful experience, similar to the feeling of relief and well-being we experience on becoming completely well after a long, painful illness. The true path is the clear realisation that leads to freedom.
Finally, the third object of refuge, is the noble sangha which means those who have experience of cessation and the path.
As to the manner in which we take refuge, there are three things to be considered: our motivation, the depth of our refuge which depends on our motivation, and the level of our faith and devotion.
When we understand and appreciate the suffering of the three realms, the fear of this suffering propels us to seek liberation from samsara and pursue enlightenment. It is important to understand that ‘fear’ here refers not just to being frightened but also includes realizing the disadvantages of samsara. Having seen its negative side, we have the conviction that we must free ourselves from cyclic existence. His Holiness warned that to be ruled only by fear was the road to madness. It was also essential to clearly understand that there should only be fear of samsara; the objects of refuge should never become a source of fear. Indeed they are the source of fearlessness. The question of fear also applies to the samaya relationship between guru and student in the Vajrayana tradition. The guru should be viewed as our best friend who will always help us in whatever situation we find ourselves, so, in one way, it is inappropriate to have fear of the guru with regard to breaking samaya.
With regard to faith and devotion, His Holiness observed that though foreign disciples usually go through a process of examining the Buddhist teachings, becoming convinced and then taking refuge, and consequently their faith is based on a clear understanding, there is often a different process at work for Tibetans and those who have been born into Buddhist families. Such people may not have `gone through this thought process, but may have developed great faith and devotion. However, when we consider faith and devotion, it is crucial to have a correct understanding of how the objects of refuge help us; if this is misundertoood, there may be many problems. Faith can degenerate into blind faith and superstition. His Holiness illustrated this point effectively and humourously, giving three examples of blind faith in action. For Buddhists the Buddha embodies compassion, loving kindness and blessing, but a person of blind faith may suppose that the Buddha, out of his great compassion, will take care of everything. Someone who flings their dirty clothes into a corner, thinking the Buddha will wash them, will end up with a pile of dirty laundry. When crowds of mosquitoes are buzzing around, someone who believes that Buddha will protect them from being bitten, will end up being badly bitten. A school student who relies on blind faith in Buddha rather than studying hard to pass their exam will get a zero. The Buddha taught the way but then we have to practise it. The Buddha is in a different world – the pure realm—and cannot transform us into enlightened beings. We have to do the work ourselves. If you then ask, why do we need the Three Jewels, the answer is that we need to know the way and we need someone to instruct us. Buddha shows the way, and we have to follow that path, work hard ourselves and then there will definitely be a result. Once we have taken refuge, we still have to work on ourselves.
Who then are the noble sangha? In the Hinayana sutras it states that someone who upholds ethical discipline, who has achieved a degree of meditative stabilisation, has generated some wisdom and is contented, and has abandoned the afflictions, can be called one of the noble sangha. They have entered the path, and if they continue to practise the ten virtuous actions they will attain enlightenment, without a doubt. Because of their qualities, the ten virtuous actions will continue to grow and increase.
In the end, the final result depends on us.