法王新闻 | 2009年12月

教授《龍樹親友書》第二天日誌 第三堂課: 佛法,才是真正的「根本上師」

2nd Annual Teaching for Foreign Students: Day 2-Gyalwang Karmapa Speaks to Students’ Minds & Hearts, Session Three: AM

地點:印度 菩提迦耶 德噶寺 Tergar Monastery, Bodhgaya
時間:2009年12月21日 December 21, 2009
中譯:堪布丹傑
報導:黃靖雅
攝影:噶瑪善治、噶瑪諾布

点击图片切换大图/小图
Speaks to Students’ Minds & Hearts

依法不依人,佛法才是「根本上師」,聽聞教法之後,要去實修,才是重點。

法王禮佛三拜

梵文三皈依

藏文獻曼達

法王念頌說法前祈請文

今天是《龍樹親友書》課程第二天,首先要跟大家說早安!

昨天說到斷「十惡」的戒,如果能做到,真的能讓世界更和平,家庭更融洽。尤其如果能行持這些符合世界和現代家庭需要的居士戒和五戒,真的可以幫助家庭、夫妻之間更和諧、更快樂。

戒律,有針對出家眾和在家眾的戒律,各分為「總說」和「詳說」兩部分;先說「總說」針對在家眾的教誡,即是第6偈。

The following summary of the morning’s teachings is based on Ringu Trulku Rinpoche’s translation from Tibetan into English.

Gyalwang Karmapa began by reviewing yesterday’s discussion on ethical discipline, emphasising that practising ethical discipline was important for the world in terms of transforming society. Behaving ethically meant abandoning the ten non-virtuous actions. For householders who hold the lay vows, adopting ethical behaviour can also be very helpful on an individual level; a couple who quarrel can create a harmonious relationship instead, for instance.

The Gyalwang Karmapa continued his teaching with an exposition of verse six. He explained that the previous verses had been applicable to both householders and those holding monastic vows, but the sixth verse is addressed specifically to laypeople.

第6偈 Stanza Six
知財體非固,Possessions are ephemeral and essence less—
如法施苾芻,Know this and give them generously to monks,
貧賤及再生,To Brahmins, to the poor, and to your friends:
來世為親友。Beyond there is no greater friend than gift.

就像我們昨天說到「六隨念」中有「念施」,隨時要憶念布施功德;今天這一偈,我們要特別來談布施。談談為什麼要作布施,以及布施的對象是誰。

我們要布施的對象可分為上供和下施:

一、上供:對具功德的上師、出家眾(註:偈頌中之苾芻,即比丘)、婆羅門等,和對我們具有恩德的父母等,向上作供養;

二、下施:對貧困、需要幫助的眾生,向下作布施。

針對這兩種對象,我們要如法的供養和布施。

接著談到為什麼要作布施。再有錢,財富也是無常、不堅實的,尤其是最近經濟蕭條,更讓人感受到財富的無常;所以要趁有能力時,勤作布施,種下善的習氣,來世投生善道,有善的所依。

接下來,是「總說」針對出家眾的教誡。即是第7偈。

Stanza four had mentioned the six paramitas, one of which is generosity. Three things needed to be considered with reference to generosity: the objects, the reasons, and the benefits. This verse explains the importance of generosity and who best deserves to receive it. There are two types of object: the higher ones, those who are a field of good qualities, which includes Brahmins, monks and nuns, and those who are a field of benefit such as one’s parents. The second group includes the poor and disadvantaged. The reason for giving is that wealth is impermanent and unstable – as we can see from the present economic crisis – so the most effective way of using our wealth is to share it, even though we may have limited resources.

The benefit of giving is that , even if you give only a little it establishes predispositions for future lives and ensures rebirth in a good migration with good resources.

第7偈 Stanza Seven
眾德依戒住,Keep your vows unbroken, undegraded,
如地長一切,Uncorrupted, and quite free of stain.
勿冗瘦雜悕,Just as the earth’s the base for all that’s still or moves,
佛說應常習。On discipline, it’s said, is founded all that’s good.

對出家眾來說,好好持守律儀戒,是應盡的責任。

以「不害他」的戒律來說,對於以身、語七種直接傷害眾生的行為(殺、盜、淫、妄語、兩舌、惡口、綺語)應加以斷除,即是「七所斷」;而造成以上這些傷害的基礎,也就是心上的三種惡念(貪心、害心、邪見),也應加以斷除。

冗,是損壞,就是不要損戒律;瘦,就是不完整,就是指持戒要完整;雜,指持戒時混雜對此生的貪著;悕,指含有對來生的希求,佛法是解脫法,不應混雜對來世福報的貪求。

如這一偈所說:「眾德依戒住,如地長一切」,戒是一切的基礎,我們修持止觀禪修時,戒律也可以幫我們攝持身口意,幫助我們不昏沈散亂,如果連最粗淺的戒都沒有,也無法進入更深的禪修。聞思修佛法時,我們要專一的修,也要有戒律,有戒則能幫助聞思修,所以說戒是一切的基礎。

接下來,是廣說「六度」,即是第8偈。

This verse is an instruction for monks and nuns. Monastics have taken vows of ethical discipline and it’s important not to allow them to degenerate. One needs to give up all harming of others. The actions to be abandoned are the seven of body and speech, and the three mental actions that are the cause of the former. Hence, one trains in abandoning these by hearing, thinking and meditating. Ethical discipline should be uncorrupted meaning that it is not kept only because of concern for this life. It must be quite free of stain meaning that ethical discipline should not be solely for the purpose of future lives either. The basis of one’s virtuous actions should be the goal of attaining liberation and omniscience. The three precepts are ethics, concentration and wisdom, and ethical discipline is the basis on which we realise the latter. His Holiness observed that if we cannot control body and speech, we cannot control our minds. Even for hearing, thinking and meditating one needs one-pointedness of mind, and this too is difficult to develop without a base of ethical discipline.

第8偈 Stanza Eight
施戒忍勇定,Generosity and discipline, patience and diligence,
慧不可稱量,Concentration and the wisdom of thusness-
此能到應修,Those measureless perfections, make them grow,
渡有海成佛。And be a Mighty Conqueror, who’s crossed samsara’s sea.

《入中論》提到,如果有清淨的戒律,其他五度的功德也會自然增長。一位菩薩想利眾,就要具備善巧方便,要有大悲心和大智慧,要讓自己的心受訓練,準備好利眾的能力,就要修持六度波羅蜜多。

以上是針對出家眾的「總說」。接下來是「詳說」,首先解說在家眾的部分,第9偈講到要孝順父母。

This verse gives more detailed instructions for monks and nuns and lists the six perfections.

As it is said in the Madhyamika-avatara, if ethical discipline exists, the other five perfections grow and increase, but, without it, it is very difficult for the other five to develop. To become a bodhisattva is not easy. A bodhisattva has to have great skill, real compassion and wisdom, and training in all six perfections in order to attain this.

Nagarjuna’s detailed instruction for householders, which follows, has nine parts, the first of which is to respect one’s parents.

第9偈 Stanza Nine
若孝養父母,Those who show their parents great respect
其家有梵王,With Brahma or a Master will be linked;
現招善名稱,By venerating them they’ll win repute,
來世生天堂。In future they’ll attain the higher realms.

我認識的很多法友,都會跟我說他們和家人相處的問題,所以我了解有些法友和父母關係很好,能孝敬父母;但的確有些人和父母關係不好,沒辦法好好和父母相處,這種情況也不少。所以這個偈子如何行持,真的應該好好想一想。

提到孝順父母,我很想去做,但沒什麼機會去做,所以很遺憾沒有太多孝順父母的經驗,可以提供給大家參考。

不過,在佛教中提到的各種修持法,我們也可以拿來和父母相處時運用,如要知恩、要報恩、不嗔恨、要原諒、要慈悲、要忍辱等,都可以幫助我們和父母的關係轉為善、調整得比較美好。我們平常會祈願一切眾生都離開痛苦、得到快樂,這時記得也要把父母觀想進去,別忘了他們不但是有情眾生,更是對我們有恩的有情眾生。如果以前和父母關係不好,要試著原諒自己,也原諒父母親 ,能諒解的要諒解,不能諒解的要安忍,把過去不好的記憶從心中消除,漸漸放下對父母的負面心情。

His Holiness commented that we all come from many different backgrounds and life situations. He himself had been able to meet a wide range of people, many of whom had love and respect for their parents, but some of whom had great difficulty doing this, so it was necessary to explore ways in which we could relate to this verse. He himself had no problems loving and respecting his mother and father. His only problem was having little opportunity to do this. He suggested that perhaps he was not the right person to give instructions to those who did have problems doing so. However, there are many teachings in Buddhist texts on cultivating patience, kindness and compassion, and how to regard all beings as attractive. Perhaps those who have difficulty loving and respecting their parents, he advised, could use these trainings, so that they abandoned feelings of anger and hatred, and practiced patience. In that way they could rid themselves of negative feelings towards their parents. As we as Buddhists must practice equanimity and show loving kindness and compassion towards all sentient beings, whether they are relatives and friends or not, if there were difficulties, perhaps we could include our parents in the latter group. Moreover, we need to reflect on our past history, learn to forgive ourselves and others, and let go of any painful or negative feelings we may still harbour.

第10偈 Ten
殺盜婬妄說,Eschew all harm, don’t steal, make love, or lie,
耽食愛高床,Abstain from drink, untimely greed for food,
斷諸酒歌舞,Indulging in high beds, and singing too,
及華彩塗香。Refrain from dancing, all adornments shun.

第11偈 Stanzas Eleven
若女男能成,此八支聖戒, For men and women who keep this eight-branched vow,
And emulate the vows the Arhats took,
欲界六天上,長淨善當生。 Their wish to nurture and to cleanse will grant
Them handsome bodies as celestial gods.

接下來提到的是「八關齋戒」的內容,指不殺、不盜、不淫、不妄、不酒、不坐臥高廣大床、不非時食(過午不食)、不著香花鬘不香油塗身不歌舞倡伎不往觀聽等八項,行持這八項一日夜,有很大的福德。如果能在藏曆八日、十四日、十五日等吉祥日行持「八關齋戒」,是非常好的,可以幫助我們投生善道,所願也都能成辦。在過去迦葉佛時,有人僅持守「八關齋戒」中其中一戒,亦能在佛陀時一世證得阿羅漢果。

This second and third verses of detailed instructions to householders encourage them to take the eight Mahayana sojong precepts, which can be divided into 4 root precepts , and 4 branches and are taken for twenty-four hours. During Buddha’s time, the Buddha instructed his followers to observe the sojong precepts on the 8th, 15th and so forth of the month. It is said that those who had done so, when they heard one word of instruction from the Buddha, became Arhats. By observing these precepts, His Holiness said, there will be great benefits in the next life.

He then introduced Verse 12, which lists actions and attitudes to be avoided by householders.

Stanza Twelve

Stinginess and cunning, greed and sloth

And arrogance, attachment, hate, and pride

(“I’ve breeding, good looks, learning, youth, and power”)—

Such traits are seen as enemies of good.

問答:Question and Answer Session

問:當我生起負面想法,想用方法專注去對治,卻越想越生氣,怎麼辦?

Question: When I have a negative emotion like attachment and look into it, the emotion becomes stronger. What should I do?

法王答:想對治煩惱,減弱嗔恨的力量,方法很多,有一種是「轉移法」。嗔恨時,是太專注於一境,可以試著轉移注意力,想其他一些沒做好的事,一直換對境、一直換對境,直到讓原本嗔心的力量越來越小。

Answer: His Holiness advised that there are many different ways to work on negative emotions. He suggested that sometimes when you dislike a particular person, something has happened or they have done something to you, it can help to change your focus, moving your mind away from that person or situation, in order to defuse the anger. This can help.

問:在國外靠販賣法器生活可以不可以,國外也需要這些法器,這樣可以嗎?

Question: Is it permissible to support ourselves by selling dharma articles with the intention of benefitting others? Westerners need Dharma articles.

法王答:如果只是想到自己賺錢,那就不行;如果有利他的心,那也只是「還好」而已;有恭敬心是很重要的,除了自己對法器要有恭敬心,顧客也要觀察他是不是有恭敬心才賣給他──如果具備這幾項,這樣是可以的。

Answer: His Holiness suggested that there were several things to be considered. If the motivation were more than just a business, it might be permissible, but one needed to consider how and to whom they were sold. For instance, there was the danger of selling them to people who would not respect them.

問:藏傳有很多僧人吃肉,過年過節吃更多,但昨天提到要過「清淨命」的生活,就是不可以殺生、賣肉;如果僧人吃肉,會不會間接害在家人去殺生、賣肉、過「不淨命」的生活?

Question: Monks and lamas eat meat in Tibet, especially during Losar. Is this not a wrong thing to do?

法王答:提這個問題的人,的確對西藏僧人有些了解。過去,西藏因地處高冷,蔬果很難生長,的確必須吃「三淨肉」來維生,這有些不得已。但很多事可以因地因時置宜,除了現在很多人離開西藏,已有了可以不吃肉的因緣,也有越來越多漢地蔬果運到藏地,科技發展也讓藏地自己能種植蔬果,所以現在吃素也不再那麼困難,希望吃肉的人越來越少,大家多吃素。

Answer: His Holiness commented that the questioner seemed to know Tibetan custom! He then explained how, historically, because of the geography, climate and situation, there used to be little choice of food in Tibet, and it was very difficult to get vegetables and so forth. Nowadays things had changed. New fruits and vegetables had arrived in Tibet, particularly from China, and it was his hope that this would lead to a change in the Tibetan diet, so that monks and lamas eating meat would no longer be an issue.

問:我真的不想這麼故(問題字條上畫了一個哭臉),但看到那麼多蚊子,還是忍不住去打它們,怎麼辦?

Question: When there are too many mosquitoes, I kill them. I’m sorry. I don’t want to do it, but how can I stop it?

法王答:這有環境因素的不同,環境乾淨的地方,蚊子就少;環境不乾淨,這種考驗就多了。我也遇到這種問題。

但生命不在體形大小,都是有生命的,都是有情眾生;如果只是因為身上的一點點痛苦,就忍不住想加以殺害,只要想想它也是有情眾生,還做得下去嗎?人類有智慧,應該可以找到避免殺它、也能不被咬的方法。要知道大到像大象那麼大,小到像蚊子那麼小,都是一條命,我們都不應加以殺害。

我也遇到蚊子很多的問題,以前會點電蚊香,但因不確定到底會不會傷害蚊子,後來連電蚊香也不敢點。最近我想到一個新辦法,就想「讓你咬吧,帶著愛心和布施心,讓你咬吧」,這樣我圓滿了布施,蚊子你也吃得飽飽的、開開心心的,豈不兩全其美?

Answer: His Holiness commented that this was a difficult dilemma. The right conditions in terms of room, screens, nets, repellant and so forth could help. However, it was essential for us to understand that although an elephant is very large and a mosquito is very small, the difference is in size not value, both are living beings. Thus, although a mosquito may seem small and insignificant it has life and it is probably wrong to take that life. Instead we should use our skills and resourcefulness to find a solution which does not harm them. Talking from personal experience he said that a few days ago he had noticed that the anti-mosquito device that many people use here seemed to be killing the mosquitoes, so he didn’t turn it on and tried driving them away instead. That didn’t work and they continued to bite him in spite of everything. Then he developed a genuine feeling of giving.

“So at least I was giving my blood freely; they benefit from receiving it and I have the positive benefit of giving. I’m trying this, I’m not saying that everyone has to do this, but this is my current thinking.”

問:1.想請求法王舉行皈依可以嗎?

2.如果想依止法王成為「根本上師」,內外因緣上要作什麼準備?

Question: Would His Holiness please give the refuge vows. How can we take His Holiness as root guru.

法王答:第一個問題是,可以。

關於第二個問題,我不斷被詢問,我對這個題目也有很多想法,正好藉這個機會,一次說個清楚。

在藏傳,要具有「三恩德」,即灌頂、密續講說、口訣教授三者,才能成為「根本上師」;在顯宗,沒有「根本上師」這個說法,只有「善知識」,幫助我們了解知何者該做、何者不該做。

關於我自己,沒有成為「頂嚴」(註:成為他人頂載的莊嚴,即上師,如觀世音菩薩頂載阿彌陀佛為頂嚴)、作人家根本上師的功德,但正在朝這條路上努力。不過有那麼多朋友帶著殷切的期望來見我,所以有些時候也會接受。如果是「鄔金欽列」這個人,是沒有資格接受的;但因為我持有「噶瑪巴」這個名號,對法友的解脫有責任,所以有時也會勉強接受。

各位不管是否有根本上師,重點是聽聞教法後,要去實修,才是重點。對於教學之人(說法的上師),即使他己身還有過患,但因所說的是佛正法,仍應加以禮敬,因為要「依法不依人」,所以各位不是依止我個人,佛法才是根本上師,這是要知道的正知見。

Answer: His Holiness began his reply by saying that this question of the ‘root guru’ was something which had been bothering him for some time. He explained that usually when we use the term ‘root guru’ it is in the context of Vajrayana practice. The ‘root guru’ is the one from whom we receive an empowerment, the reading transmission and the root instructions. It is also possible, however, to have a ‘spiritual friend’. This is the person who shows us the right way, and instructs us in what is to be adopted and what is to be abandoned.

Gyalwang Karmapa explained that from his personal point of view he felt he did not have the qualities to be a root guru yet, although he was working hard to develop them, and it was his aspiration to gather all the genuine qualities that are necessary. However, many people has placed their hopes, wishes and confidence in him, so, in order to encourage them, he accepted the role of root guru. He thought that he, the individual Ogyen Trinley, did not have the qualities to be a root guru, but through his connection with the Karmapa lineage, there might be some benefit to people. Thus, whenever he agreed to take someone as a student or to be their root guru, he visualised the great masters and took inspiration from them. It was important to understand that the focus should not be on him personally but on the lineage and the teachings of the lineage. Even someone with hundreds of negative qualities was worth listening to if they gave one positive instruction. His Holiness reminded everyone that one of the four reliances instructs us to rely on the teaching(Dharma) and not on the person. “It’s the teaching that is great, not me,” he maintained, and advised everyone to take the teachings as the main guru and regard him as a spiritual friend; then there wouldn’t be any problems.

Gyalwang Karmapa concluded the morning session with two reading transmissions: Thogme Sangpo’sThe Thirty Seven Practices of a Bodhisattva and the dedication prayer from Shantideva’s Way of the Bodhisattva.

接下來,要給予《佛子行三十七頌》、《入菩薩行論迴向品》的口傳。

(法王口傳藏文《佛子行三十七頌》、《入菩薩行論迴向品》,大眾恭敬聆聽)

(法王帶領大眾唱頌梵文迴向文,結束第三堂課)

An audience approaching 2,000 people shared four extraordinary hours today with His Holiness, as the teachings on Nagarjuna’s “Letter to a Friend” continued into their second day. His Holiness’ exceptional range as a teacher was on full display as he mixed formal commentary on the verses of the text, with heart advice for working with difficult emotions, intermittently lightening the mood with humorous anecdotes that had the entire assembly hall ringing with laughter. His Holiness spoke directly to students’ minds and hearts, and many were visibly moved when he described his own thoughts on what it means for students look to him as their root lama.

In encouraging students to confront their own afflictions, Gyalwang Karmapa paid particular attention to stinginess, anger and pride. Speaking of anger, His Holiness pointed to the irony of the fact that when we are angry at our enemies, we are actually accomplishing their aims for them. This is so because anger most harms the person who harbors it in their mind, and since our enemies are seeking to harm us, our anger has already done their work for them.

However, while urging students to make sincere efforts in working with their difficult emotions, His Holiness cautioned that it is important not to become discouraged when we commit errors or find that we have afflictions arising. Had we arrived in this life without ever having committed any errors or succumbed to our afflictions previously, then it might be surprising or disheartening to suddenly find ourselves doing so in this life, he said. But since we come to this life with a personal history of countless lifetimes in which we have been overwhelmed by afflictions, it is already commendable that in this lifetime we now recognize our faults as faults, and then work to change them.

More detailed teachings will be made available very soon.