法王新闻 | 2009年12月

教授《龍樹親友書》第三天日誌 第五堂課(圓滿日)禪修「無我」,就能自然利他

2nd Annual Teaching for Foreign Students: Day 3-Extraordinary Teachings Come to an End, Session Five: AM

地點:印度 菩提迦耶 德噶寺 Tergar Monastery, Bodhgaya
時間:2009年12月22日 December 22, 2009
中譯:堪布丹傑
報導:黃靖雅
攝影:噶瑪善治、噶瑪諾布

点击图片切换大图/小图
Mandala Offering being made to His Holiness.

當我們禪修「無我」,對眾生不知無我真相,想追求快樂,反而造作苦業,

由衷生起不忍之心,這時「無我」空性就充滿利他的力量。

法王禮佛三拜

梵文三皈依

藏文獻曼達

今天是《龍樹親友書》課程第三天,也是最後一天。到昨天為止講了16偈,昨天、前天都是比較詳細的解說,但再這樣會說不完,今天會大部分用念的講解過去,就像口傳,如果今年我們未能全部講完這項課程,明年再講,明年的法友有些人未能聽到前半部,會覺得有些遺憾,所以我們還是全部講完比較好。

以下是幫助我們消除身口意過患的偈文,就是以下的第17偈。

The following summary of the morning’s teachings is based on Ringu Trulku Rinpoche’s translation from Tibetan into English.

The Gyalwang Karmapa began by saying that this the third day of the teachings would also be the final session. Consequently it would not be possible to give a detailed commentary on the whole text so he preferred to at least give the reading transmission of it, occasionally commenting, in order that both he and the audience would have a sense of completion.

The next three stanzas, 17, 18, and 19, contain instructions to abandon lowly actions of body, speech and mind.

第17偈 Stanza 17
如於水土石, 人心盡彼同,
起煩惱前勝, 愛法者如後。
Understand your thoughts to be like figures drawn
On water, sandy soil, or carved in stone.
Of these, for tainted thoughts the first’s the best,
While when you long for Dharma, it’s the last.

這一偈將心比喻為水、土、石。如果在水上畫圖,圖案馬上就會消失;如在土上畫圖,可以稍微持久一點,但也會消失;如果畫在石頭上,就能很堅固持久。要讓煩惱像在水上畫圖,馬上消失;但反過來,修持慈悲時,要像畫在石頭上,要讓它穩固堅實,至少也要像畫在土上,不要馬上消失。

This verse is concerned with abandoning negative thoughts. The simile compares a drawing on water which is immediately erased, with a drawing on earth which remains for a short while, and a carving on rock which can last for centuries. His Holiness explained that, especially when we first begin to practice, we experience many afflictions in our minds. Thus, we should train our minds so that these afflictions become like words on water. When, on the other hand, we train in positive qualities such as loving kindness and compassion and so forth, the results should be like rock carvings, at best, or, at least, as if drawn on the earth.

第18偈 Stanza 18
佛說三種語, 人美實虛言,
猶如蜜花糞, 棄後可行前。
Three kinds of speech are used by humankind, And these the Victor variously described:
Like honey, sweet; like flowers, true; like filth, Improper speech—the last of these eschew.

佛說有三種語言,一種是甜蜜的話,像蜜一樣;一種是美麗的語言,像花一樣,前兩種令人聽了都心生歡喜,要多說這兩種語言;第三種虛假之言,就像糞便一樣,我們應捨棄。

This verse describes three different types of speech – helpful and beneficial which is sweet like honey; truthful and beautiful like a flower; the last is wrong speech, unclean like dirt, and refers to such things as lies and divisive speech, which should be avoided.

第19偈 Stanza 19
今明後亦明,今闇後還闇,
或今明後闇,或今闇後明,
如是四種人,王當依第一。
Some there are who go from light to light,
And some whose end from dark is darkness still,
While some from light to dark, or dark to light
End up, thus four, of these be as the first.

接下來這一偈,在講如何止息無明惡習,增進光明善念,讓自己的心進入善的循環。我們都想止息輪迴痛苦,解脫成佛,但如果因為粗重煩惱的牽纏,害他的惡念惡業就會形成;如果具善心善行,就能前往光明的地方。如果現在在光明善道,接著前往的,還是光明美好的地方。就像《入行論》說,一位菩薩如果有菩提心,就像著騎著一匹駿馬,從光明善地,前往光明善地,不會退墮到黑暗的地方。

這裡提到人心的四種狀況:

一、現在光明,以後也繼續朝向光明;

二、現在黑暗,以後也繼續沈淪黑暗;

三、現在光明,以後卻退墮到黑暗;

四、現在雖黑暗,以後卻能轉為光明。

這的確與我們心的情況很一致。有時現在的心是善的,接著卻退墮成不善;有時現在是不善的,接下來卻能行善、轉向光明;最好的是,現在的心,是一念光明善念,未來的每一念心,也持續朝著光明善念前進。龍樹菩薩勉勵他的朋友樂行國王,要做「第一種人」,就是「從善向善」、「從光明到光明」。但我們首先要能知道什麼是善、什麼是惡,如法取捨,才能真正捨惡向善,進一步從善向善,從光明到光明。

Verse 19 explains why we should stop non-virtuous actions and train in positive qualities. Our ultimate aim is enlightenment, but in cyclic existence negative emotions influence our actions, and our actions harm others. If we turn away from these non-virtuous actions and work on positive deeds instead, our lives now will become happier and there will our rebirths will also be more fortunate. Gyalwang Karmapa quoted from Shantideva’s The Way of the Bodhisattva “If you ride the horse of bodhichitta you will go from one happy place to another. So how could a bodhisattva ever be lazy?” Of the four possible directions we can take in samsara, he advised, we should aim to go from light to light, to turn ‘good’ into ‘better’.

(因時間關係,接下來第20偈至28偈,法王以口傳方式,快念一次)

His Holiness then read verses 20 to 29, pausing to comment on verse 29.

第29偈 Stanza 29
You who know the world, take gain and loss,
Of bliss and pain, or kind words and abuse,
Of praise and blame—these eight mundane concerns—
Make them the same and don’t disturb your mind.

第29偈是講「世間八法」(利衰毀譽稱譏苦樂)。

當我們說到「世間八法」,並不是馬上全部捨棄不要,如稱譽利樂,有時我們還是要用來鼓勵別人。這裡「斷除」的意思是,是不要太受它影響:一被稱譽,就得意忘形;一被詆毀,就沮喪嗔恨,重要的是要在各種狀況中,禪修平等性。有句話說,知足能常樂,如果心是平靜、常安住在平等性中,就會常常覺得很快樂;反過來,如果你很容易受外境影響,別人一句話,你就心如波浪,高下起伏,這樣你的心就會失去自主性,喜樂痛苦都由別人、由外境決定。

什麼是「輪迴」?有人給了一個定義,說是「不完美」、「不圓滿」,我覺得說得很好。的確,人生總是苦樂參半、毀譽參半,不要太在意,否則只是和自己過不去。就像熱水本來就會把你燙傷,冰水本來就會把你凍到,當你碰熱水被燙到、碰冰水被凍到,還覺得嚇一跳,這不是很奇怪嗎?它們的本質本來就是這樣啊。人生也一樣,本質都是苦樂參半的,當你經歷它,只要去感受,沒什麼好驚訝。人的一生本來就會經歷很多事,苦樂好壞都會經驗到,你的心要打開,去經驗一切、包容一切,這樣無論外在如何變化,你的心都不會被動搖、受打擾。

This verse refers to the eight worldly concerns and the problems that can arise if we depend too much on external conditions for our happiness and well-being. This leads to an imbalance in our lives and our mental states become like waves on the ocean. For instance, some people when praised become overjoyed, but then when they are criticised they become sad and depressed. Consequently they have no stability. If, instead, we can be content with whatever conditions we face, we will always be happy. His Holiness warned that Dharma practitioners should not pay too much attention to what people are saying about their practice. He advised that if we can maintain internal stability and equanimity, irrespective of what is happening externally, life becomes trouble-free. As practitioners we should understand and accept the nature of samsara. The definition given of samsara is ‘not everything goes well’, so why should we be surprised when things go wrong? If you put your hand in hot water you will be scalded. You shouldn’t be shocked by this – it’s how things are. If you take a bath in icy water, you aren’t surprised that it’s freezing cold! Our view of samsara should be similar – we should be expecting problems and not be thrown off balance by them.

禪定,不要「身在,心不在」

我們一生中,「禪定」的力量是很重要的。禪定,是「五遍行」心所之一,它的本意是「專注力」,就是心的一種清晰、穩固、專一的狀態。如果沒有這種專注力,人生會很辛苦。譬如有些時候我非常忙,每天都要接見很多人,說很多話,這樣一天不停的忙下來,如果沒有禪定力,到了晚上,會覺得怎麼時間一下過去了,事情都消逝了,但自己這一天到底過得有沒有意義?會有種空虛感。所以做事要有定力,要把心放在所做的每件事上,隨時保持覺性、覺照力,這樣每天晚上回想,你這一天才過得有意義,在生活裡培養這種專注而有覺性的「禪定力」,是非常重要的。

很多人會有這樣的想法,覺得:「我真虛度人生,浪費了這一生」;但要想一想:「是誰浪費你這一生?」,其實除了我們自己,並沒有別人浪費我們的人生。譬如每天都要吃飯、刷牙,有人覺得浪費時間;上班塞車,有人覺得浪費時間;看病排隊,也有人覺得很浪費時間──其實,只要你的心放在「現在正在做的這件事」上面,就不算浪費生命。譬如刷牙、洗臉這樣簡單的事,只要你把心放在上面,就是有意義的。但我們的「心」和「正在做的事」經常是分離的,身在,心不在,人生就會沒意義,那才是真正的「浪費」。外在只是助緣,要人生有意義,要從內心去尋找。

再這樣仔細講下去,實在沒時間講完了,西藏有種傳統,如果真的沒時間講完,把經書放在頭頂,就算得到灌頂或口傳,或者我手一揮,大家就算都得到了(開玩笑的),我看接下來我還是口傳吧。

Gyalwang Karmapa went on to suggest ways in which it was possible to maintain mental equipoise in daily life. The Abhidharma lists five ever-present mental factors, one of which is samadhi– a one-pointed factor of stability. Speaking from his own experience he said how sometimes he was so busy that when he reviewed the day at night, he failed to recall anything useful that he had done and felt that the day had lacked purpose and that this precious human life was being wasted. His Holiness then moved on to consider what it really means to waste time. The essential thing, he advised, was to maintain a stable awareness in whatever we are doing, and if we can do this we will never be wasting time. There was no point fretting over time spent brushing our teeth, sitting in a traffic jam, or standing in a check-out queue. These were merely external conditions. We always have a choice, whatever we are doing; we can always make use of our minds. Some people misguidedly believe that their happiness and well-being depend on external conditions such as acquiring a new car, but, a careful examination will show that happiness depends on internal not external factors. If we understand this, whatever is happening around us, we can work on our minds and use that time in a positive and meaningful way. It is fundamentally important to understand that happiness comes from within.

(法王口傳第30至58偈)

Gyalwang Karmapa then gave the reading transmission of verses 30 – 57. He paused again at verse 58, to discuss the correct understanding of impermanence.

第58偈 Stanza 58
如是無常亦非久, 無歸無救無家室,
生死勝人須厭背, 併若芭蕉體無實。
It’s all impermanent, devoid of self, So if you’re not to stay there refugeless
And helpless, drag your mind away, O King, From plaintainlike samsara, which has no core.

接下來,是談到「無常」。有些人一聽到「無常」,就會覺得恐懼、害怕;但其實所謂「無常」,不是什麼都結束了,黑暗一片,並不是這樣。至於為何大家一聽到「無常」就會恐懼?大概因為我們一生就死這一次,會和親友永久離別,而且死後會經歷什麼也不知道,所以會恐懼。

其實每天當中,我們已經經歷了無數的「死亡」了。一般定義人的一生,是指從出生到死亡,其實仔細體會,我們一天當天,就有無數的生滅。從一天的生滅,可以體會一生的生滅,體會身邊細微的無常生滅,更可以幫助我們把握每個當下。每個生滅的當下,組成了所謂的一生,所以珍惜每個當下,對這一生多麼重要,把握每分每秒的平靜快樂,累積成快樂的大海,這樣一生才不浪費。

Observing that some people became fearful when they meditate on impermanence, he commented that this was not the point; it is not intended to bring fear. As Buddhists we believe that this birth is but one of a succession, a cycle of birth and death. However, people often mistakenly think in terms only of this life—one birth, one life, one death. As a consequence, death becomes uncertain and frightening. The correct way to look at impermanence, however, is as a sequence of births and deaths which we can see operating at all levels of our everyday lives. Moment by moment, new things come into being, that is birth, and other things come to an end, that is death. Understanding impermanence in this way should have two positive effects: firstly, it should reduce our fear of death itself, and secondly it should heighten our appreciation of our moment-to-moment existence leading us to value and focus on each moment. If we fail to do the latter, we may waste our lives. If we take each moment as a drop, we can make our lives an ocean of happiness.

Gyalwang Karmapa resumed his reading of the text and completed the reading transmission.

(法王口傳第59偈至123 偈圓滿)

問答:Question and Answer Session

問:是不是有佛化身成女性,或如度母化身般的女性仁波切?
Question: Should not some Rinpoches have the aspiration to take rebirth as females, as Tara did, in order to show that women are capable of enlightenment?

法王答:的確有佛的化身成為女眾,也有如度母般以女身成就的,只要具備願力就可以。但這不是要讓妳和男眾去競爭,比賽誰才能證悟,這種世間的男女競爭是沒有意義的。不管是男眾或女眾,只要有慈悲、願力,就一定能成就的,不一定是仁波切才行。
Answer: Having suggested that this was worth praying for, His Holiness commented that In Tantra it is clear that one can attain Buddhahood in the body of a woman. A Buddha can emanate in any form – male or female—hence Tara, but it would be wrong to think in terms of a competition between men and women. There needs to be a reason such as compassionate action for the benefit of women requiring birth as a woman. It doesn’t have to be a Rinpoche, His Holiness observed, some of the audience could do it too.

問:這次來參加課程,有很多比丘尼,但都是西方或漢傳的比丘尼(註:藏傳絕大多數是沙彌尼),請問何時才可恢復藏傳的比丘尼制?
Question: There are so many bhikkshunis here – but none from the Tibetan tradition. When will Your Holiness start gelongma ordination? If Your Holiness does not start the tradition, who will?

法王答:這在前幾天的戒律會議中,也做了很多討論。藏傳的比丘尼制,是來自「根本說一切有部」傳承,現在這個比丘尼戒傳統已斷,我們正在討論如何恢復。我以熱忱和努力在做,請大家有耐性,但我一定會做到。
Answer: Gyalwang Karmapa explained that during the recent Vinaya Conference, there had been a great deal of discussion on the issue of gelongma (Skt. Bhikkshuni) ordination and how it could be introduced into the Tibetan tradition. There were several difficulties which needed to be thoroughly discussed, as it would be wrong to act hastily. One difficulty was that there were no gelongma in the Mulastavastavadin tradition, which Tibetan Buddhism follows, although it seems that some Tibetan masters in the past may have ordained nuns. A second was finding a method by which the gelongma ordination could be introduced so that its future was stable. Possible solutions discussed at the conference included carrying out gelongma ordination by a sangha of monks only, or by a combined sangha of monks from the Mulastavastavadin tradition and nuns from the Chinese Dharmagupta tradition. It was difficult to know at what point gelongma ordination would become possible but His Holiness promised that he was working hard on the issue, with pure motivation. It could not be done hastily. It had to be done properly in order to secure the future of the gelongma.
“Don’t worry. I will do it,” he said in English. “Be patient.”

問:尼眾如果不能常住在僧團,必須在醫院等地服務、工作,應注意什麼?
Question: What is the right way of life for a nun who is working in a hospital far from other sangha members?

法王答:如果依律儀,嚴格來講,的確有很多必須要注意的事;但最重要的是,不要違犯「四根本隨」;其他會招致社會批評、令人指責僧伽的言行,也不可做。
Answer: For a getsulma (novice nun), His Holiness advised, the most important thing from the Vinaya point of view, is keeping the four root vows, and not doing something which lay people would take offense at in terms of making them lose their respect for or faith in the sangha.

問:如何觀修「無我」?修「無我」就能利他嗎?
Question: How should we meditate on selflessness? And how does this relate to helping sentient beings?

法王答:我先不按經典的形容講解,我依自己的感受來說說。我們一說「我」,就有「我在這兒、你在那兒」的分別感覺,好像自己可以「獨立自主」靠自己生存。平時總覺得「有我,才有別人」;其實沒有別人,你也無法存活。我們所執著的這個「我」,其實都是依靠別人而來的,我們讀的書、吃的食物,乃至呼吸的一口空氣,都需要依靠其他很多事物來成全,真的沒有一個可以「獨立存在」的自我。有了「無我」的想法,才會尊重別人。仔細思維這點,你會發現,自己需要的,別人也需要;對自己好的,對眾生也好。人我的連結感,就會很親近、很緊密,這時利他就會很自然。

無我,真是利益他人、實踐慈悲的好方法,說太多空性、大手印,有時連因果都會不顧了。當我們禪修「無我」,發現太多眾生沒有看到「無我」的真相,盲目執著有個「我」,本來希望追求快樂,結果做的事卻常令自己痛苦,這是多麼無明啊,我們因此對他們生起慈悲心,希望幫助他們、讓他們從我執的無明中解脫出來,這時「無我」的空性,對利他就充滿力量。

Answer: His Holiness commented that although we often think of ourselves as separate and independent , a closer examination of our situation proves that we are not. From the very air we breathe which sustains our life, to the food we eat and the books we read, we are dependent on others. We are a part of everything around us, and compassionate action is a product of a thorough understanding of this interdependence. From his own experience, he observed, the more he understood interdependence the more he understood how important others were, and the importance of working for their benefit. Usually we think I exist, so others exist, he said. We need to understand that I exist because others exist. If others didn’t exist, I wouldn’t exist.

Understanding selflessness and emptiness is basic to understanding compassion too, he said. Sometimes when meditating on selflessness it seems as if all becomes nothing, but when one really understands selflessness, compassion also arises.

結語

在這兩天半的課程中,我們在一起討論了《龍樹親友書》, 結下了殊勝的法緣,沒有在座各位,這一切也無法完成,所以要感謝各位。

這本書,是在幾千年前,龍樹菩薩對他親近的朋友樂行國王,表達關愛的一封信;幾千年後,我們聚在一起,讀這本書,這是第二次關愛之情的傳遞。

This concluded the teaching. Gyalwang Karmapa thanked everybody for coming . Hundreds of years ago the friendship between Nagarjuna and King Surabhibhadra had produced this text, and now, because of the text, everyone at the teaching had formed a karmic connection, and he would pray to ensure that this connection would be renewed in future. He hoped that everyone would carry the experience of friendship, love and harmony they had shared back to their own countries, East and West.

就像第55偈中所說:
壽命多災厄, 如風吹水泡,
若得瞬息停, 臥起成稀有。

我們此生到今天為止,每天呼吸了多少次,想想這些呼吸有多少次是有意義的?其實多數都是沒意義的,甚至帶來了痛苦。但是最近我們來到菩提迦耶,在聖地聽聞佛正法,每次的呼吸都是和平、清淨,都帶來大歡喜、大利益,就樣就是有意義的。

大家遠道而來,能在聖地相聚聞法,都是各位往昔的願力和福德成熟。我祈願我們未來還能像這樣再相聚,千言萬語還在心中,但我還是這樣打住吧。

(主辦單位、法王姊姊、今年祈願法會功德主香港創古中心暨譯師代表,上台對法王作身語意、八吉祥獻供)

法國譯師喇嘛確吉致辭:

我代表在座各位感謝尊貴的法王,感謝法王這三天的教導。以好的園丁為例,一個好園丁知道如何使用好種子,一顆種子它可能沒有好香味、好顏色,但一個好園丁知道如何栽種它、灌溉它、讓它成長;敬愛的法王 噶瑪巴,就是夢想中最好的園丁,您知道知何讓我們好好成長茁壯, 以佛法的甘露瓊霖溉灌我們,您的教言,宛如來自天空的音樂,如此美好。最後,請接受我心的供養,我願將這顆心誠摯的供養尊貴的上師:法王 噶瑪巴。

蜜雪兒.瑪汀(Michelle Martin)致辭:

萬法因緣生,這次也不例外。沒有許多義工朋友的參與和付出,也沒有這次圓滿的法會,所以我們要對以下的人員表示感謝。(接著,蜜雪兒從法王總秘書竹奔仁波切開始,到中文宣布與翻譯陳碧君,仔細的一一點名感謝)

最後,我們要感謝的是您──前來法會現場聞法的1,500位法友,是您給我們服務的機會,感謝您。您本身就是法會的一部分,您本身就是法王佛行事業的一部分。法會結束後,我們有機會把法王所教的佛法,帶回我們所居住的地方,帶回我們的家,這是對法王最好的供養,也是讓法王長久住世最好的方式。現在,讓我們一起合掌,發一個願:願我們年復一年,都能回到聖地,回到法王座前聞法,年復一年。

(在唱頌「噶瑪巴千諾」歌聲中,大眾一一上台,接受法王摩頂加持,結束《龍樹親友書》第五堂課,整個「外國弟子課程」至此圓滿)

The Closing Ceremony

After three days of inspiring teaching, His Holiness brought to a close his discussion of Nagarjuna’s Letter to a Friend with thanks to the students who had gathered for so far away.

He said, “I am happy to have been able to give teachings on this text and thank you for giving me this opportunity. Letter to a Friend was composed over a thousand years ago when the great scholar Nagaruna sent a letter to his dear friend, King Decho Zangpo. I am very happy to have been able to speak about this text to faithful students from the East and West. The fact that we could all meet here is due to our gathering considerable merit in the past. I sincerely hope that in the future we will be able to meet again and again. I am continually doing as much as I can to make this possible.”

As thanks to His Holiness for these special teachings and with prayers for his very long life, leaders from Dharma centers and the organizers offered him the supports of body, speech, mind, qualities and, activities. Then Lama Chokyi from France spoke for everyone when he compared His Holiness to a skilled gardener. In the beginning, the seeds are rather colorless and not very attractive, but the gardener knows that with care they will grow into beautiful flowers, so he nurtures them as they grow to maturity. Likewise, in the beginning, we students are rather undeveloped, but with His Holiness’s compassion and teachings, we hope to blossom into true flowers of the Dharma.

Afterward, everyone had the opportunity to offer their auspicious scarves and personal thanks to His Holiness and receive his blessing. Many stayed behind in the surrounding gardens of Tergar Monastery to enjoy the sunny, warm weather, to circumambulate the shrine building where His Holiness stays, remaining a little longer in his presence.

At the conclusion of the teachings, Lama Chokyi Senge offered words of thanks to His Holiness on behalf of the audience. Recognizing His Holiness as a skillful gardener, who is carefully preparing the fields of students’ minds, the French translator requested His Holiness to continue caring for us and showering us with the warmth and moisture of his Dharma teachings.