时间：2019年01月21日 January 21, 2019
地点：印度 菩提伽耶 点灯祈愿法会
First, I would like to welcome and extend Tashi Delek to all of you who have gathered for the 36th Kagyu Monlam: the great regent of all the victors, Goshir Gyaltsab Rinpoche, Kyabje Yongey Mingyur Rinpoche, the other tulkus, khenpos, acharyas, spiritual friends, all the monks and nuns from the various monasteries, and all the faithful lay people from all over the world.
Further, this year, the principal sponsors of the Monlam are a group of lay people and monastics from the Nyeshang region of Nepal. We are all aware of this place in Nepal. At the time of Jetsun Milarepa, one of his disciples, the hunter Kira Gonpo Dorje, was from there. From that time forward, Nyeshang has had an uncommon and noble connection with the Kagyu. Further, I have seen a pilgrimage guide for Nepal by the Sixth Shamar. When he traveled in Nepal, he went through Nyeshang and highly praised the people of that region as having great faith in the Dharma, being kind-hearted and generally very good.
And for me personally, when I was traveling from Tibet in 1999, I came through Nyeshang. There is a mountain pass there called To-rang. It is very high and very steep. The top is like no pass I have experienced, and it was very difficult to cross. Based on this, I have a very strong impression of and love for Nyeshang.
Not only have all of you sponsors offered money and many physical things, you have also served with your bodies and speech–serving tea, moving and carrying mats and other things, sweeping, cleaning, and so forth. You have worked really hard, serving in many greater and lesser roles. So you have been sponsors in both name and in actuality, and all has all gone very well. It occurred to me that other people of the Himalayan region could learn from your example.
For instance, there are the various peoples of Sikkim. Maybe in the future all of you could be the sponsors for the Kagyu Monlam—doing that work would be very good, right? Likewise, there are the Bhutanese; in Nepal there are the people of Dolpo, Nubri, Tsum, and so forth. If you people from these places have the ability, I think it would be good if you could also do likewise. We all have been connected for generations and if you take the opportunity to serve the Kagyu Monlam, I think it could be a significant event in the histories of your people.
For this year’s Kagyu Monlam, I personally requested Chamgon Situ Rinpoche to definitely come, but in the end, Rinpoche was not able to attend. And so I supplicated Goshir Gyaltsab Rinpoche to again come and serve as the head of the assembly, just as he did last year. Not only did Rinpoche agree to this, but also during the pre-Monlam program, he granted the profound torma empowerment of Chenrezig, the Five Deities of Gyalwa Gyatso. Then during the actual Monlam, he bestowed deep teachings on The Seven Points of Mind Training. Rinpoche worked very hard for all of us. So on behalf of all the Kagyupas and principally all of those who attended Kagyu Monlam, I want to thank Rinpoche for his great kindness.
Another fortunate aspect of this Kagyu Monlam was having the exalted reincarnation of the supreme tulku Sangye Nyenpa Rinpoche granting profound teachings on The Ganges Mahamudra during the pre-Monlam program. I am very grateful to Rinpoche for fulfilling my hopes just as I had expressed them.
In truth, in terms of the Dharma, the Kagyu Monlam is one of the most important events of our year. And now twice, I have not been able to come—this is quite noteworthy. Therefore, I want to take this opportunity to apologize to all of you.
At the end of November last year, there was a great meeting planned in Dharamsala, which the leaders of the various lineages were insistently called to attend. I had a great wish to do so. But before this, in October, I had thought that I would quickly travel to India before going to Canada. I wanted to meet His Holiness the Dalai Lama as I hadn’t seen him for a long time. I also wanted to meet and discuss some things with members of the Indian Government. It was my wish to go.
But, as all of you know, I have a new passport. Once I got the new one, my old document—the I.C.—became invalidated. As that was the case, as soon as I got the new passport, I went to the Indian embassy in New York to turn the I.C. in. I went there and told them I needed to turn in the old travel document, and I further requested them to grant me a visa in my new passport. But the officials there said that they were not authorized to do so and needed to speak with the offices in Delhi about it. There was a lot of back and forth, which took a bit of time, and in the end, I could not get these things done.
After this, I was supposed to go to Canada, but I was unable to. Still, I thought that I should attend the meeting of the heads of the lineages. In the end, this meeting was postponed due to the passing of the head of the Nyingma lineage, Katok Getse Rinpoche. All the work around the passport was not being resolved, so I thought to set it aside and rest for a while. I wasn’t feeling that well physically and thought to relax and do some retreat. I thought it would be good to not rush things around the passport, but to work on it carefully. Up to this point, I have not been able to return, but we continue our conversations with the Indian government. I hope to return to India just as quickly as I can to see you all.
It is customary to have a special address on the last day of the Monlam. Though I don’t have anything special to share, I would like to encourage all of you. I have had the actual task of supervising the Monlam since 2004. Thus far, more than ten years have passed, and many things have changed on many fronts. I think there have been many positive changes, many alterations for the better. I consider the most important adaptation to be those concerning the behavior and conduct of the monastics. As best we can, we have put into practice the Vinaya teachings of the true Dharma. We have done a lot of work to increase understanding in this area.
You all know the reason for this. There are many who become monks and nuns in Tibet, India, Nepal, Bhutan and so forth, but of those who do so, not many understand well what it means to be a monk or what it means to be a nun. In order to live up to the name of being a monk or nun, we first need to understand what it means to be a monk or nun. For that reason, there’s no choice but to inform our monastics about this.
Especially, many think that after ordination or according to the Vinaya, there are many things that ordinary people are allowed to do that monastics can no longer do. They think there are many things that are not allowed—that it is like a bunch of rules. But really, the vows of ordination are not just rules or a list of things we are allowed or not allowed to do. What is more important is that it is desiring or striving for liberation or having renunciation. This renunciation or longing for emancipation is very important.
And it should also be unfabricated, meaning that one shouldn’t need to try to generate it—it should arise naturally from within. When it’s like that, we call it unfabricated. If it arises in an unfabricated way in our being, we will have what we call “the ethical conduct of renunciation” or “perfectly pure vows.” If we don’t give rise to this, we won’t have “perfectly pure vows” or “the ethical conduct of renunciation.” For this reason, the vows of ordination are not just an outer form or a ritual of body and speech. In truth, the essence of the inner meaning is the generation of this mind that strives for liberation and the mind of unfabricated renunciation or wishing for emancipation.
There is a teaching of the Kadampa spiritual friend Potowa where he said that first he received novice and full ordination from an abbot. But it was later, when following the old Shramana of Ratreng, that he really received the vows of ordination. Now, this old Shramana of Ratreng is Dromtönpa. Dromtönpa was a lay person, a householder. So he actually received the novice and full monastic vows i from a lay person.
What did he mean by that? It was based on the kindness of Dromtönpa that he generated the mind of renunciation, and it’s based on generating this mind of renunciation that one receives the true vows, the perfectly pure vows, the ethical conduct of the vow of renunciation. The vows that he received before were just an outer appearance of receiving the vows, he had not received the inner essence of the vows, the life-force of the vows. This illustrates a very important critical point. The vows are not received merely through the outer form; what we really need in order to receive the true vows comes from having this inner essence.
Take me for example. Until I was seven (in the Western way of counting) I stayed with my family. Once I was recognized, in the presence of the Jowo statue in Lhasa, Chamgon Situ Rinpoche and Kyabje Gyaltsab Rinpoche ceremonially cut my hair. In truth, during the hair cutting ceremony, one receives the lay vow of threefold refuge—it’s part of the upasaka or lay vows. At that time, I was very young, and didn’t really understand what it was that the two Rinpoches were giving me—it was more like a show for those gathered. But it was the lay vow of threefold refuge. So I had not received anything but the lay vows, and I didn’t even receive the full lay vows either, it was really just the threefold refuge vow. Drupon Dechen Rinpoche was alive at that time. He told me that since I was the Karmapa, my situation was special, and that it would be okay for me to wear monks’ robes. So from that time forward, I wore the robes, even though I did not have any ordination vows.
It is said that the 16th Gyalwang Karmapa received this intermediate ordination from the HH the Dalai Lama, so Rinpoche thought that it would be good if I received it from the Dalai Lama. Tenga Rinpoche further advised that it would be good for me to receive the vows of novice and full ordination from Chamgon Situ Rinpoche and Kyabje Gyaltsab Rinpoche since I should receive the vows according to our Kagyu tradition. We shared this advice and thinking with Chamgon Situ Rinpoche and Kyabje Gyaltsab Rinpoche, and they agreed that it was very good. 於是那時便通過尊者辦公室祕書長洛桑金巴呈遞信函，請求尊者賜予近事男戒。至於沙彌比丘戒，因為要持守噶舉派自宗傳承，所以計劃在兩位仁波切處受戒。如是報告尊者之後，尊者也同意了。 所以2002年我十六歲時，在尊者座前領受了近事男戒。但那天尊者在傳授近事男戒時，同時傳授了沙彌戒。可能是尊者有特別的用意吧。當時本來自己以為除了近事男戒之外，沙彌比丘戒會之後在兩位仁波切前傳授。然而尊者傳授了兩個戒。 於是噶舉派教內中就有一些聲音傳出，覺得沙彌比丘戒應該在自己教派裡面領受，不應該在別處領受，種種不同的話就出來了。總之，說實在，當時我還沒有學習過律典。那麼這裏所提到的近事男戒並不是真正的出家戒，只是一個能穿上僧服，捨棄在家形象的半戒。我以為並非一個完全的戒法，之後我也疑惑是否需要再在噶舉傳承中受沙彌戒，還有比丘戒。就這樣過了一段時間。 ■ 若能以圓滿的出家戒身份而死去，我將很心安 隨後在祈願法會工作時，我有機會學習到戒法，增進了對戒律的理解。才知道自己原來對所受的戒法的理解，並不是很究竟。過去以為戒律清淨，好像現在需要重新來過。因為真正的戒律清淨，若沒有堅固的出離心，想要持守穩固的戒律是很困難的。我們現在的出家，都是根據傳統習俗去出家。而經過認真深刻地思考，才發心出家的是很少的。 內部很多人說：「他為什麼不受比丘戒？」，有這樣的聲音。但是我認為，最主要的是出離心，沒有出離心，雖然持守戒律是有利益，但是無法成為解脫的戒律，以及真正清淨的戒律。尤其現在與過去時代不同。現在已經不是過去祖師的時代，而是一個進步繁榮的時代，外在物質快速發展，導致散亂的外緣很多。 以我而言，不只在佛法上，在政治上和文化上，與其他各族群都有著各種接觸。在這樣一個充滿紛擾和散亂的環境當中，如果沒有穩固的出離心，如果沒有志求解脫的心，想要有清淨的戒律是很困難的。我是這樣認為。 所以我自己也在不斷努力，讓自心生起堅固的出離心，努力能有朝一日，盡量地生起出離心。當然要生起完美的出離心是很困難的，但是至少可以生起合乎標準的出離心。能夠如此的時候，就能領受完整的別解脫戒。最後，若能以這樣圓滿的出家戒的身份死去的話，我將感到很安心。我是這麼想。由於對自己有這樣一種比較嚴格的要求，所以至今還沒有受戒。 總之，我要說的重點是，三事儀軌（長淨、安居、解制）是很重要的，在戒律中有很多部分，其中三事是非常重要的。自己曾經在如何能夠圓滿三事的方面，做了很多研究。之後發現，現在的寺院中，要能有圓滿三事的條件是很困難的，除非是律學院，專門修持律學的寺院才能辦到。要圓滿清淨的三事儀軌，需要在時間等方面具備條件，並且有上百位下定決心的僧人才能做到。因此現在的各寺院中，要能圓滿完成三事儀軌的，幾乎是沒有了。 當我們真正回溯對比經典律典的時候，會發現都是不合規定的，幾乎沒有能符合規矩的。可以說理想與現實的差距很大。理想上可以是各種各樣，但是現實上未必能符合理想。只能盡力而為，有時實現和理想相距甚遠的話，也會帶來很多困難。 總之，過去興辦律學院，是為了幫助未來的戒法律學能夠發展，以及為了讓三事儀軌能夠圓滿成辦，所以這樣的律學院必不可少。過去藏地有，現在的中國也有。 所以我想說，在戒律的行儀上，我們在祈願法會中花了不少心血。希望未來大家能繼續努力，不僅為了能夠更好的承辦祈願法會，重點還是為了僧伽們能夠在威儀律儀上不斷地有所進步。 ■ 為法教、為眾生，我和泰耶多傑尊者見了面 第二點，去年比較特別的一件事情，是我和泰耶多傑尊者見面一事。當時我們做了一次聯合聲明，之後我自己也公開做過一次解釋。藉著今天這個機會，我想再次地說明：這樣的會面，純粹是為著教法與大眾而作出的努力。 人們會說，我是噶瑪巴、是佛、是菩薩。無論怎麼說，但是我認為，自己只是一介凡夫，是有煩惱、有過患的一個人，不像人們說的，功德圓滿過患盡除。 總之，無論如何，我對弘揚教法和利益眾生的心願和勇氣，是不會退失的。這樣的心願，不僅是此生此世，而是要生生世世不忘記。雖然自己不敢有未來能往生淨土的把握，但是無論未來是獲得人天身，甚至是惡趣的牛馬身，無論投生為什麼，我都希望自己能夠時常憶念對三寶的信心，並且不忘失對如母眾生的慈悲心。 尤其由於自己過去善業功德，今生能成為侍奉噶舉的人，並且獲得佛陀噶瑪巴的傳承加持，我祈願生生世世都能夠不離噶舉祖師海的加持庇護，任何時候都能憶持佛陀噶瑪巴的名號。我本人祈願能夠如是承辦，因此也希望大家能夠如是祈願。 ■ 我正在閉關，心中強烈生起無常想 現在我跟少數一些人在一起進行閉關，身心不如以往了，時常感到灰心傷感。尤其死亡無常的想法，時而在心中強烈的生起。從修行人的角度來說，生起死亡無常的想法是好的。然而也或許是因為自己身體不好，心理狀態也不好，因此而有這樣的想法。我也說不清。 最近一陣子沒有關於我的官方消息，外面便會流傳一些謠言，各種流言蜚語誣賴指責都很多。我想我們都一樣，尤其我一生中從小到大，經歷這樣的事層出不窮。在每個人生命中，這樣的時刻也是會有的，因此最重要的是，自己要誠實的對待自己，相信自己。我也會如上所說，為教法和眾生繼續努力。 最後，有了以國師嘉察仁波切為主、還有各位上師祖古、僧伽大海、大家的悲心大恩，才有了這次圓滿興盛的第36屆祈願法會，感謝大家。祈願未來第37屆祈願法會上，我能親臨現場，以身語意來服務各位。感謝大家。 Bamboo评论：这次法王开示不是直播，而是原定的直播开示时间无通知地延后了一天，放的是录像。所以里面的内容，尤其是某些翻译的真实度有待商洽。
After I had come to India, in 2002, Kyabje Tenga Rinpoche gave me some advice. He said, “Up to now, you have not received any vows of ordination, and it would be good if you did so. The first vow you should take is barma rabjung—intermediate ordination.” That was the first I had heard of intermediate ordination.
A message was sent through Lobsang Jinpa, the secretary of His Holiness’ Private Office, to His Holiness requesting him to grant the vows of intermediate ordination, explaining that since I had to uphold the lineage of the vows of our Kagyu tradition, there was a plan for me to receive the vows of novice and full ordination from Chamgon Situ Rinpoche and Kyabje Gyaltsab Rinpoche in the future. His Holiness received the message and consented.
In 2002, when I was 16, His Holiness granted me the vow of intermediate ordination. And on the day when he did so, he gave me both the vow of intermediate ordination and getsul [novice monks vows] at that same time. Our request was only for the intermediate ordination, but he gave me both ordinations. He must have had a special reason for doing so. Though at the time, my thought was to first receive the intermediate ordination and to later receive novice ordination from Situ Rinpoche and Gyaltsab Rinpoche, His Holiness gave me both.
There was some talk within our lineage of the importance of my taking the vows according to our own tradition and that it wouldn’t be quite right to do otherwise. But at that time, to be honest, I hadn’t studied the Vinaya much. In actuality, the vow of intermediate ordination is not the actual monastic ordination. It is really just permission to wear the robes, the symbol of religious ordination. One sets aside the clothes of a layperson and takes up the symbolic robes of ordination, but it is not actual ordination.
After this, much time passed while I was wondering whether I should receive the novice vows according to our Kagyu tradition or not and what to do about full ordination. Further, I also became very busy with the work of Kagyu Monlam. As I studied the Vinaya and my understanding of it gradually increased, I felt like my former way of approaching vows was not quite correct. I thought my previous manner of taking them was not right, and that if I really wanted to receive the vows in a pure way, I should start again from the beginning. Especially, if one wants to receive the vows purely into one’s being, one needs stable renunciation and wishing for emancipation in one’s being. Without this, it would be difficult to keep the vows in a stable manner. These days, it is as if we were just following the custom of taking monks or nuns vows, but it’s actually very rare that one thinks deeply about this and wishes, from the depths of one’s being, to ordain.
I think many people must be wondering and talking about why I have not taken full ordination by now. From my side, the main thing is that if renunciation and wishing for emancipation has not truly arisen, the novice and full monks vows will not be based on this ethical conduct that longs for liberation, and it would be difficult for them to result in perfectly pure ethical conduct—though there must be some benefit in holding the vows anyway. Further, these modern times are unlike times of the past. The previous eras of the past masters were different. These days, there are a lot of fluctuations, a lot of outer developments, and many inner and outer causes for distraction.
Taking me as an example, not only do I have to think about Dharma, I have to be concerned with politics; I meet many different kinds and nationalities of people, and am involved in other avenues of learning. This creates a great deal of busyness and distraction. In truth, in such a situation, it is difficult have stable renunciation and a mind with the stable longing for liberation. And without these, it is difficult to hold the vows in a completely pure way.
So I am trying to develop stable renunciation within my being. I am trying to develop a certain degree of true renunciation—it’s difficult to generate a really high level—but if I can develop a certain degree of renunciation, I feel that I will be able to receive the vows of individual liberation in a full and complete way. Then, at the time of death, if I can die with the support of ordination, I feel my mind would be at ease. This is the high hope that I hold for myself and the reason things have been as they are up to now.
In short, the main point I want to make is that the practice of the three foundational rituals are very important. In general, the Vinaya texts speak of many rituals, and these three foundational ones are critical. Some time ago, I thought that it would be excellent if we could perform these three foundational rituals properly and well. I did some thorough research into this. These days in our various monasteries, it seems that it would be difficult to assemble the conditions to perform them in a complete way. I think that if there were an institution that focused intently on the Vinaya, and if there were just one hundred monks who practiced the vinaya from the depths of their being, maybe we could do it. But in the monasteries these days, it would be difficult to perfectly perform the three foundational practices.
When we look at the source texts, all we see are all the things that aren’t right in what we do; we don’t see many examples of what we’re doing correctly. From one perspective, it must be that there is a large gap between our hopes and the way things actually are. We can wish for whatever we want, but that doesn’t mean that it will manifest in reality. We can do the best we can, but sometimes our wishes and the reality of the situation just seem to get farther and farther apart. We experience that difficulty at times.
But in any case, if there were a Vinaya monastery where the Vinaya was practiced as it was done in the past, the tradition of the vows could be propagated and the three foundations could be practiced in an excellent and complete manner. This is actually indispensable. Previously, in Tibet, there were Vinaya monasteries like this. Likewise, in Chinese histories we see that this was so.
In any case, my reason for sharing this is that we have striven to make the behavior and rituals of the Vinaya an important part of the Kagyu Monlam. I want to encourage you to continue to make effort here because conduct, and our increasing understanding of it, is one of the principal conditions causing the Monlam to go well. It is said that there is no aspect of conduct laid out by the Bhagavan Buddha that we are unable to perform; it just comes down to whether an individual is going to observe it or not.
The second point I want to make concerns some other important news from last year—that is, my requesting a meeting with Gyalwa Thaye Dorje. This was widely reported, and afterwards, I had an opportunity to clarify what happened. I’d like to take this opportunity to say more now. The main purpose for having the meeting was solely for the benefit of the teachings and beings. I am always working to this end.
Generally, people say that I am Karmapa, a buddha, a bodhisattva. They say what they say, but when I look for myself, all I see is an ordinary being with afflictions and faults, not someone who is free of faults and endowed with all the qualities, as others think.
In any case, my wish to benefit the teachings and benefit beings has never waned, and at the very least, I pray that I will be able to benefit the teachings and beings not only in this lifetime but in all my lifetimes. In particular, for myself, I don’t have any confidence or basis to think that I will be born in a pure realm in the future, but whether I am born in the high realms as a god or human or whether I am born in the lower realms as a horse or donkey or such, no matter what, may I be able to remember The Three Jewels with faith and not forget my compassionate wishes for all my parent-sentient beings.
In particular, because of the good karma I have accumulated in the past, in this life I have been able to take birth as a servant of the teachings of the Kagyu lineage, the protectors of beings. Likewise, I have been able to receive the blessings of the lineage of the great Karmapas. Thus, I always think to myself that we must not let the blessings of the ocean of Kagyu siddhas weaken and that we should always keep the name of the buddha Karmapa in mind in all our lifetimes, never forgetting it. Please everyone pray that we can accomplish this.
At this time, I am in a retreat with only a very few people around me. My body and mind are not like they were before; I am in a period where I feel sad and discouraged. In particular, the thought of death and impermanence is arising strongly within me. Perhaps, from the perspective of a practitioner, developing the awareness of death and impermanence is good. But from another perspective, this is happening when I am not feeling particularly well in either body or mind. I can’t explain it clearly.
For a long time, no one has heard much about what I am doing, and there are many rumors and a lot of hearsay about it. We are all the same. No matter who we are, people say all sorts of things about us; they misunderstand or make up things. In my life, this has often happened from the time I was little until now. Such situations happen often to all of us. But the main thing is that because our own minds are not hidden from us, it is important for us to believe in ourselves. For me, as I said before, I intend to continue working for the sake of Buddhism and sentient beings.
To conclude, this 36th Kagyu Monlam has been gone very well; it has been excellent in the beginning, excellent in the middle, and excellent in the end. This is primarily thanks to the kindness of Goshir Gyaltsap Rinpoche, all the lamas and tulkus, and the ocean of the sangha. I would like to thank all of you. I pray that next year I will be able to come to the 37th Kagyu Monlam in person and serve with my body, speech, and mind. Thank you, everyone.
當時仁波切建議在觀音尊者跟前受近事男戒會很好。據說十六世法王是在十三世尊者跟前受此戒的。近事男戒在尊者前領受，那麼，沙彌比丘戒則在噶舉派自宗中領受，所以若能在大司徒仁波切、國師嘉察仁波切前領受會很好。於是，我便請示兩位仁波切，兩位仁波切說這樣很好。 It is said that the 16th Gyalwang Karmapa received this intermediate ordination from the HH the Dalai Lama, so Rinpoche thought that it would be good if I received it from the Dalai Lama. Tenga Rinpoche further advised that it would be good for me to receive the vows of novice and full ordination from Chamgon Situ Rinpoche and Kyabje Gyaltsab Rinpoche since I should receive the vows according to our Kagyu tradition. We shared this advice and thinking with Chamgon Situ Rinpoche and Kyabje Gyaltsab Rinpoche, and they agreed that it was very good.