法王新闻 | 2021年03月

2021讖摩比丘尼春季辯經課程_第十六天第一堂課開示

Arya Kshema Spring Teachings Day 16 – the first session

༸རྗེ་བརྒྱད་པ་མི་བསྐྱོད་ཞབས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་ཐར་བཀའ་ཁྲིད། བདེ་བྱེད་མའི་དཔྱིད་ཆོས་ཉིན་བཅུ་དྲུག་པ།

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尼泊尔 列些林 LekshayLing

开示時間:2021年3月12日晚上9:00-10:00(北京/台北/香港)March 12, 2021
中文口译:堪布丹杰
中文笔录:释妙竹(2021年10月26日于Mexico city)
English text source from: Arya Kshema website

嘎千大营的吃素传统和三净肉的定义
Vegetarianism in the Great Encampment and the Three-Fold Purity of Meat in the Vinaya

བོད་སྐད།
English Translation Audio
中文翻译音频

(原本11日上的课,facebook.com/karmapa当天通知说法王要多休息一天,所以停了一天的课。)

首先要跟各个寺院的堪布、善知识还有僧众们、佛学院的学生,尤其是我们尼众寺院的尼众们,还有东西方透过网路观看的男女朋友们,首先问候大家扎西德勒。

今天主要讲的是配合米觉多杰的《妙行自传》当中上士夫的修持,我想讲一下噶玛嘎千大营中对于酒和肉的一些规约。 尤其是第八世法王如何禁止酒肉,还有律典中对于「三净肉」开许的部分,简略地做一个介绍。今天不见得全部都说得 完,有一半可能会是明天再讲。

After giving his auspicious greetings, His Holiness continued his presentation on the Great Encampment’s traditions and rules for not eating meat. In addition, His Holiness discussed how the Vinaya addresses meat consumption.

嘎千大营断肉的传统和原因
Part 1: The Fourth Karmapa Rölpai Dorje prohibits meat and alcohol in the Great Encampment

一般来说,我们在噶玛嘎千大营中的禁肉、吃素的规约是非常严谨的。那我们会说是不是从第八世米觉多杰的时候才 开始这样子吃素呢?并不是的。而是从在他之前的历代噶玛巴那个时候就有的一种规矩。怎么知道在之前的噶玛巴 就有这样子的吃素规约呢?在第九世噶玛巴汪秋多杰撰写的一个《嘎千毡布延知大规约》中有提到:之后法王臧林巴、法王德新谢巴、 通妄敦丹、确札嘉措等传记中亦是附和这个说法的,尤其周围的全体出家众亦如是,只要是大营中的任何一份子,皆不食用 肉品,甚至动物的一根毛。同时也完全不饮酒。如此依据多部经续两种传规的行持实在是不可思议的、人天的一种行持。 之后米觉多杰的行传亦不出此行,米觉多杰清楚地告诉冈仓的行者们,尤其是实修者们,要切实地做到离贪,舍弃俗物, 虔 诚祈请。同时也明示学院的行者切实对于佛教一切经论进行闻、思、修等,依此而持守佛教。法王臧林巴,就是第四世洛佩多杰, 再来德新谢巴就是第五世、通妄敦丹第六世、确札嘉措第七世,在这个里面你会看到这几世法王,嘎千大营当中是 完全没有任何一点酒跟肉的。Bamboo:前面不是说第五世德新谢巴好啖“烂羊”吗?“烂羊”应该是煮得很烂的羊肉,而不是死后腐烂了的羊吧。)

Referencing the Ninth Karmapa Wangchuk Dorje’s Great Rule Book for the Great Encampment, the Ornament of the World, His Holiness explained that the Fourth Karmapa Rölpai Dorje and successive Karmapa incarnations prohibited the consumption of meat and alcohol in the Great Encampment: those who were included in the encampment could not have any meat — not even the hair of a deer — or drink any alcohol, not even as much as the tip of a blade of grass.

同样,在噶玛恰美的一篇名为《肉的过患和分辨开遮:北方传承的班智达文殊上师的教言》,有这么一篇经典。当中 就有提到法王洛佩多杰身边总是围绕着五百多位身披袈裟的比丘,各种动物的肉类,甚至连一根毛都看不到的。从如此 究竟的解脱行传开始直到米觉多杰建立确得养苏的时候几乎都严持禁肉的规约。这里提到的尼林僧舍虽然没有禁肉,但 也 会为吃素的僧人特别煮素斋的粥等。还有法王与法王子除了素斋之外连肉类都不会看到。这里面主要提到的内容就跟 前面第九世噶玛巴妄秋多杰所说的内容一样。从第四世法王洛佩多杰开始,在嘎千大营当中就不准把任何食用的肉带到 大营当中。这里就提到从法王洛佩多杰开始,历代的噶玛巴都持续弘扬这样子的行持。尤其到米觉多杰所建立的大部分 的寺院、僧团当中都严持禁肉的规矩。还有第六世夏玛巴确给汪邱建立的一个尼林僧舍的佛学院当中,因为噶玛恰美当时 来朝礼这个佛学院,所以他很熟悉这所寺院的一些规约,他就说:“在这个寺院中并没有很严格的禁止吃肉,但是会为 那些特别吃素的僧人煮一种名为多嘎瓦的素斋的粥,还有噶玛巴确英多杰跟夏玛巴确给汪邱两位也都是吃素的。他们都是 素斋之外不会看到任何肉类。同时在荟供的时候,平时不吃肉的人在荟供时会稍微吃一点,而法王和法王子为了避免 违犯三昧耶戒,也会稍微吃一点点肉。”这里说的很清楚。所以从前面的经论当中就可以看到,从第四世噶玛巴洛佩多杰的时候开始嘎千大营就有这样一个规矩,而且这个规矩也是非常 地严谨。从那时候就严谨吃肉了。或许这样来看,禁止食肉、吃素可以说是嘎千大营的一个特色,也不为过的。

Successive Karmapas upheld, preserved, and spread Rölpai Dorje’s tradition of vegetarianism. His Holiness believes that this prohibition on eating meat was a distinctive feature of the Great Encampment. In Karma Chakme’s The Words of Guru Pandita Jamyang from the North: The Faults of Meat and Distinguishing What is Allowed and Prohibited, it is written: There were always 500 bhikshus with outer robes around Rölpai Dorje, and he perfected the example of not allowing meat, not even the hair of a deer, to come into his sight. From that time on, most of the dharma organizations founded by Lord Mikyö Dorje had strict rules against meat. At Nyinling Monastery, there was no rule against meat, but a separate soup with a vegetarian stock was made for the vegetarians. The Karmapa and Heart Sons only ate vegetarian food and never allowed meat in their sight. In ganachakras, the meat offering was eaten by everyone, and even the Karmapa and Heart Sons ate a small amount so as not to violate samaya.

那么这样一个禁肉吃素的规约清楚知道最早是由洛佩多杰建立开始的。怎么知道的呢?是他的亲传弟子叫噶玛衮勋撰写的一个传记中 提到:身边的随侍也以三白为生。师徒所在之地,如果见到有宰杀牲畜的肉、骨等等,就会予以呵斥,甚至连一点酒的味道都无法 飘进嘎千大营区内,行持极为严谨。这里提到洛佩多杰不止是他身边的侍者,所有他的随侍也都是以「三白」,也就是吃素 的意思。而同时,他们师徒不管在哪里扎营,如果看到那里有被宰杀牲畜的肉、骨头,马上就会予以呵斥,酒是一点都 带不进大营当中的。

Similarly, Karma Könshön, who was one of the Fourth Karmapa’s direct disciples, wrote a namthar of Rölpai Dorje called Delighting the Scholars. In this text, he reported that Rölpai Dorje and his entourage lived off of the three “white foods”, and that if the bones of a slaughtered animal were found where masters and disciples had stayed, they would be reprimanded. Moreover, “not even the scent of alcohol was allowed to waft into the confines of the encampment. [Rölpai Dorje] brought everyone into pure conduct.”

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就要驱摒或者降低职位

同样在楚布衮邦巴撰写的《法王洛佩多杰传记》中也提到:任何时候大营当中丝毫没有任何肉品,或酒。行持如此清净 甚妙,由于如此极为强烈的这种大悲加持力,聚会的大众最多时会有上万人,至少也有五百人。当中的上根者承诺修持 「止观」;中根者承诺对于经论的「语」跟「意」升起确信;下根者承诺恒时持诵「六字大明咒」等。这里提到说:同时 令断除于各自地区的杀生行为,令其持诵佛号等。你可以看到这两个都是洛佩多杰当时的亲传弟子所写,所以嘎千大营 当中断肉的戒律是很严的。

Another of Rölpai Dorje’s students, Tsurphu Kangpangpa, concurred. He said of his teacher: There was no way that even the tiniest amount of meat or the mere scent of alcohol could be in the encampment. His conduct was the perfection of purity and the power of his compassion extremely great.

那到底有多严呢?在第九世噶玛巴的《嘎千规约》中就有提到:不要说平时没有这种肉了, 甚至在新年,或者一些大的庆典宴会中,传统那时候都会有肉的,但是只要是嘎千大营当中,不仅是平时不能有肉,甚至象 刚刚谈到的这些特殊的新年节日的时候,也不能有肉。所以这里写的很清楚。同样,《大规约》中也提到:有人供的时候, 也不能放在摆供养品当中,除了「胜谛」或者一些特别仪轨之外,嘎千中的庆典不能随便举行这样的荟供等等。如果任何 人有参与,或者真的这样子吃肉的话,就要对冈仓的师徒负责。如果还不听话的话,就要驱摒或者降低职位,看情况而定。Bamboo:看情况而定的意思就是,象第五世噶玛巴德新谢巴好吃羊肉,就不会被驱摒,也不会降低职位。)

Rules against meat and alcohol consumption in the Great Encampment were clearly quite strict. Prohibitions included the slaughtering and butchering animals in or near the Encampment, and meat was not to be offered during regular pujas or during times of celebration such as Losar (Tibetan New Year). People who butchered animals or did not heed these rules could be expelled from the Encampment – which meant being expelled from the Karma Kagyu entirely – or demoted, depending on the severity of the wrongdoing committed.

这段意思是在说,如果有人供养噶玛巴师徒「肉」的话,这个肉是不能列在,因为我们会有供品记录,譬如说摆供养品, 每一个供养的条目中是不可以写下去的。Bamboo:那这些肉怎么处理了呢?)还有大营迁徙到一些圣地的时候,或者在一些特殊的象祖师圆寂日,会举行荟供。 不然平时或一般的庆典的时候,是不能随便举行荟供的。换句话说,荟供不是随时可以举行的,所谓的荟供就是那时 可以吃一点肉的。同时规约中还说:嘎千大营不管内外都不准杀生。这是非常重要的,绝对不可以杀生。如果有人真的为了肉而杀生的话, 或者参与了这样子杀生的过程,就要对冈仓师徒负责,意思就是会伤害到冈仓师徒的寿命。接着说,如果还不听从的话, 就要把他从大营中驱摒出去,或者是降低他的职位,然后是看情况来决定的。这里提到说要「驱摒」,现在我们会说反正离开 大营他还可以到其他地方去,但当时可不是这么简单的。他只要一被驱摒出大营的话,那么所有噶举的寺院都不可以 接受他。因为只要是被嘎千大营驱摒,就等于被整个冈仓噶举教派驱摒出去了。 所以这是很严格的一种惩罚。Bamboo:可以去吃肉的别的教派的寺院,或者还俗当个屠夫什么的。相当于现在的被大公司炒鱿鱼。)

我在想,嘎千大营断肉吃素有很多原因。我想最主要的一个原因就是因为大营中的驻众 有成千上万的人。如果为了他们的食物要给肉吃的话,那可是会要宰杀很多的生命的。我想这是为什么嘎千大营禁止 食肉的原因。如果要给这么多人吃肉,那可是真的要,因为你不可能总是等着动物自然死亡,那就一定要宰杀,就 变成为了你而杀的肉了,就是所谓的「不净肉」,会有过患、伤害的。我想这是大营断肉最主要的原因。

There were many reasons why meat was prohibited so strictly in the Encampment. However, the primary reason, His Holiness explained, was to prevent numerous sentient beings from being killed in order to feed the Encampment’s many people. If eating meat had been allowed, eating meat from animals that had died naturally was impractical due to the number of people living in the Encampment; you wouldn’t be able to wait until you had enough animal corpses to feed everyone. As a result, animals would have had to be killed. According to the Vinaya, this meat would be considered impure and there would be great harm from eating it.

米觉多杰的全然禁肉
Part 2: Mikyö Dorje encourages all Tibetans to give up meat

因为我们现在在讲米觉多杰的传记,米觉多杰是全然禁肉的,为什么米觉多杰特别要禁肉呢?就像之前谈到,他从小 的时候,确札嘉措圆寂,在米觉多杰还未升座之前,这段时间之前谈到过就是整个规矩都没了,非常的混乱。尤其他们 会把所有供养的牲畜都宰杀来吃,之前也说过那段历史也是很凄惨的。米觉多杰从小就看到,而且经历到这样子 的过程,所以当他年长一些之后,比较有些权力,可以来管理的时候,他就全然地禁肉了。不仅是嘎千大营当中要禁肉 吃素,而且他也不断地鼓励更多人吃素,怎么知道他是这么做的呢?由第五世夏玛巴撰写的一个《米觉多杰教言目录》中 就有一篇名为《不可食肉文——致居于雪域西藏之无依如母大众》的信件,换句话说,就是一篇公告,给所有雪域藏地人的公告。 但现在我们还找不到这篇文章,相信以后可以找到的。虽然不知道这篇的内容写的是什么,但从这篇的题名就可以知道 ,不止是嘎千大营,米觉多杰也希望他所兴建的寺院甚至西藏全境所有的人他都提倡吃素,都不可以吃肉。

As His Holiness explained in a previous session, by Mikyö Dorje’s time, the Great Encampment had become much larger and more organized. After the Seventh Karmapa Chödrak Gyatso passed away, many of the Great Encampment’s regulations were disregarded and many animals were offered, killed and eaten. The Eighth Karmapa Mikyö Dorje, recognizing the difficulty and suffering this caused, reinstated the rule strictly prohibiting meat in the Great Encampment once he was old and influential enough to do so. In addition, many of the monasteries he founded adopted strict rules against eating meat and he started a movement promoting vegetarianism throughout Tibet. The Fifth Shamarpa’s Catalogue of Collected Works includes Mikyö Dorje’s Letter to my Defenseless Mothers Primarily in the Land of Snows, an announcement disseminated in Tibet about the inappropriateness of eating meat. Although His Holiness doesn’t have this text, he was able to ascertain Mikyö Dorje’s position on meat-eating from the title. His Holiness hopes one day we will be able to obtain a copy of the Letter to my Defenseless Mothers.

同样还有另外一部针对这段辅助的注解,就是桑杰巴珠撰写的《妙行自传疏》中也提到:他无论前往何处都善巧方便地 禁止食肉,由于无法禁止工布地区食肉,至今都不前往工布和霍地等等,专致食肉的地区化缘乞食,据说原因即在于此。 就像这段提到的,无论米觉多杰到什么地方,他都会善巧方便,他并不是禁令很严厉,说“你一定得怎么做”,他没有, 他非常善巧方便地提倡吃素。但是象工布这样一个地方,它没有办法完全地不吃肉;还有霍地,「霍」就是指北方大草原 那些地方,专指吃肉的地方,是因为在这样一个地方不太可能种得出蔬菜、水果,他们只能以肉品为主要的食物。总之,米觉多杰也 不太会常到那些地方去乞食或者化缘。很多人说他不去的原因就在于此。

The Eighth Karmapa avoided going to regions for alms where large quantities of meat were eaten. From Sangye Paldrup’s commentary on the Autobiographical Verses “Good Deeds”: No matter what region he traveled to, he skillfully prevented people from eating meat. In Kongpo, because of the region, he was unable to prevent it, and it was due to this that he did not go for alms in Kongpo, Mongol regions, or other regions where they only ate meat, it is said.

同样,米觉多杰自己撰写的论典当中,很多都会提到吃素、断肉的部分。举个例子来说,象他在《律典:戒律的一部大疏》中 就有提到:在咕嘟、玛哈嘎啦的这些法会上,多玛的其他供品,如果放有酒或肉的话......这段意思是说,像是在我们年尾的玛哈嘎啦、 咕嘟这些法会上,都会放这种多玛的供品,有的时候我们会放这些酒或肉的。但是米觉多杰说“不可以这么做”“如果你放了 的话,就是没有把我当成导师,同时,我也不会把你们当成我的弟子,所以,你们要好好地想一想”。这段话用词是蛮清楚的。是很认真、很清楚的一段文字。

We can see from his text Great Commentary on the Vinaya that Mikyö Dorje was quite insistent about not consuming meat or alcohol. In it he wrote: Further, if you put meat, alcohol, and so forth into the Gutor and other certain kinds of torma, you are not taking me as a teacher. You are not appropriate to be my disciple. You are not taking me as a guru.

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首先象我这样的人

以前很多人对我说:“外面的人都在说‘噶玛巴说,如果不断肉就不是噶举派’”, 很多人会说,这个说法太说过头了。他们会说,是我说的,吃肉的话就不是噶举派。其实并不是我说的。首先象我这样的人,我也不可能分得出你是不是噶举派的,我没有这样的能力。Bamboo:象掌控噶举派的大佬——创古仁波切,Bamboo也分不出他到底是格鲁派的,还是 噶举派的;是有神论的喇嘛,还是无神论的土共的地下党员。)但是应该是2004年吧,那时候提倡断肉、吃素,就有提到祖师的很多教言,尤其引用了第八世米觉多杰的这段话。很多人当时听到了,就想说, 可能是我说的,事实上不是这样,是第八世法王他说的。

On a personal note, His Holiness has heard from many people, “the Karmapa said that if you don’t give up meat you’re not a Kagyupa”. His Holiness clarified that he doesn’t have the ability to tell or decide whether someone is a Kagyupa or not. The confusion may have arisen out of a talk he gave in 2004 where he quoted some of Mikyö Dorje’s texts concerning giving up meat. His Holiness pointed out that he was not the one making this statement but rather it was what previous Karmapas had instructed.

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卡塔仁波切(左二)、创古仁波切(右二)
创古度母寺住持(右一)拍摄于美国KTD

Bamboo评论:今年五月创古仁波切让他的位于BC省列治文市的加拿大创古寺找了一个当地女人去当地的法院状告大宝2017年某一日冲进KTD(美国三乘法轮寺)的闭关房强奸了她,接着蓝金黄的大外宣在网上铺天盖地进行了无当事人图片、情节模糊化一笔带过的报道。需要附带一提的是,KTD已过世的卡塔仁波切和他的侄子——今年9月刚被换掉的KTD总管噶玛敦都(起了个和大宝爹一样的名字)都出身创古寺;卡塔仁波切的外甥——第九世洛卓尼玛仁波切也是青海创古寺(2010年玉树大地震的震中)的住持,是由创古仁波切认证、并由中共当局承认的少数几个活佛之一。

此老头对大宝人前比谁都恭敬,演技完全不下Bamboo的母亲。Bamboo以前还在尼泊尔大佛塔旁的创古寺捐了好多钱给创古寺养的小喇嘛,现在想来却是用钱把一群孩子推进了无间地狱。而在这个诬告和诽谤无罪的年代,法院和媒体是最好的欺压良善的工具。

同样呢,米觉多杰在他的《百段教言》中也说道,这里很重要 的是,我们出家之后应该断舍八种事物:酒、肉、盔甲、武器、坐骑、谋利、稼物、畜牧等,刹那间也不可受用,尤其 酒、肉、武器,眼睛看到的当下就要舍弃。如果不断除这八种事物,就不算是噶举人,切实执行为要。这里提到说 ,有不清净的八种事物,出家之后就应该断除。哪八个呢?有不同的一些算法,但是依米觉多杰来说,是肉、酒、盔甲、 武器、坐骑、谋利(就是盈利、经商)、稼物(就是农务),还有畜牧等,他说就这八个。尤其是酒、肉还有各种的 武器,这三种,眼睛看到当下就要舍弃,换句话说,就是连眼睛都不能看到这些东西。如果不断除这八种事物的话, 这些出家人就不算是噶举人了。他是不是很霸道地这样说呢?并不是的。因为这段话的说法,在佛经中对于冈波巴大师的授记中提到:未来冈波巴大师 会有一个断除了八种不净事物的弟子(Bamboo:到底哪部佛经,Bamboo怎么找来找去没找到。)这就是说,未来冈波巴的弟子,噶举的弟子,应该要断除这八种不净的事物。 但就像最开始说,八种事物有不同的算法。因为我们现在看到只是米觉多杰版教言中提到的八种事物,或许还有其他的 说法。所以,米觉多杰是有原因才说的,并不是他自己想的,或自己刻意地、很霸道地做出了这样的规矩。

In addition to meat and alcohol, there were eight impure things that must be given up upon ordination which Mikyö Dorje listed in his 100 Short Instructions. They are: armor, weapons, riding animals and pack animals, business including interest, crops and houses, and milking and animal husbandry. These were not new orders created by the Eighth Karmapa. Rather, Mikyö Dorje was citing Lord Gampopa.

一般来说, 西藏因为地理位置的关系,高原嘛,所以吃素是比较困难的。但过去的噶举祖师,当时的生活形态和我们现在西藏的 整个情况,我想可能有几百或几千倍的差距了,因为已经有很大的改变了。过去的确来说,象米觉多杰的时候,如果 吃素,就好像说不吃饭是一样的,不吃肉跟不吃饭是一样的。因为除了肉之外,没有其他什么东西可以吃的。以前我 看到了一些像是杂志吧,有关西藏食物的介绍,其中有几百种的食物当中,大概九十多种都是肉。不用说那些了, 就我小的时候,因为出生在西藏牧民家庭,牧民的食物是什么呢?主食就是酥油、荼(?),还有牛奶。除了这些之外, 没有其他可以吃的,也没有蔬菜的,或者说还有糌粑,其他真的没的吃。所以说要断肉吃素是非常困难的。这样想想, 再看到当时那样的时代,噶举祖师还有很多成就者们,很多西藏各个教派的智者、成就者们,却还是非常注重吃素 这件事情。除了断肉之外,不能喝酒这个部分,他们都有非常多丰富的教言,我想这部分可能明天再说,也就是噶举的祖师 他们是怎么样提倡吃素,还有西藏各个教派的大师们他们是怎么样针对这部分的说法,可能明天再说。

His Holiness reminded listeners that being vegetarian in Mikyö Dorje’s time was quite challenging as there were not many foods one could eat. In an old book he had read that enumerated Tibetan foods, he said there were only about 100 foods named and over 90% of them were meat. His Holiness, born to a nomadic family, said that aside from meat, there was only butter, cheese, and tsampa to eat and milk to drink, and there were no vegetables. Consequently, great Tibetan masters of the past did not tell people to stop eating meat in particular. However, past Kagyu masters considered it to be very important and taught about the problems of and reasons for giving up the consumption of meat and alcohol. He would discuss this further tomorrow.

三净肉的定义
Part 3: Meat that is pure in the three ways

接下来我想讲一下「三净肉」,「三净肉」这部分的确争议比较多,争议的部分就先不讲,总之就先介绍一下「三净肉」。 首先「三净肉」是律典当中提到的,如果我们从梵文、巴利文、中文、藏文当中这些不同部派的《律典》,不同语言 佛教有不同保存下来的《律典》。从《律典》中你可以看到,佛陀对于这些出家众、僧团弟子的生活起居各个方面 都有非常多的开示。尤其对于食物,食物对于我们人类来讲更是维生最重要的一个东西,都得吃东西。

The Bhagavan Buddha paid great attention to food and the conduct of the monastic community, and gave them substantial advice. Some of his advice can be located in the Vinaya scriptures of different schools. With regards to today’s instructions on meat that is pure in the three ways, His Holiness referred primarily to quotations given from five of the 18 original schools of Buddhism, most of which he had translated from Chinese. The texts have slightly different explanations on determining which meat was pure or impure for whom ( bhikshus, bhikshunis, novices, or lay people).

佛陀的时代,印度有许多的宗派,有一些佛教以外的宗派会特别强调苦行的重要性,像是一般人几乎不可能做到的饮食上的各种苦行。 回到佛陀身上来看,他在成佛之前,也示现了各种的苦行,真的亲身经历了很多的苦行。在经历之后,他也深切地体会 到「苦行是无法带来证悟的」,所以他后来停止了这些苦修。接着他为了帮助后世的弟子,不要落入极端的苦行,而 造成身体难以忍受的伤害,可能造成他没有办法闻、思、修,同时也要帮助弟子不要落入太过于奢华的生活而放逸, 所以,佛陀就开示出很多的方法和规约,避免落入这两边

His Holiness started this portion of the teaching by reflecting on the earlier ascetic practices of Prince Siddhartha. At that time in India, many philosophical and religious traditions promoted practicing austerities, sometimes quite severe ones. These were very difficult for ordinary people to practice, but Prince Siddhartha did so for six years. He then had an experience where he realized that practicing austerities alone would not lead to enlightenment. The Bhagavan Buddha later taught to his monastics that they should neither have a lifestyle that is so severe it is unbearable, nor one that is so luxurious that one becomes careless.

为了生活,吃东西、饮食是非常重要的,但是佛陀就开示 说:“你要吃东西,是的,但是记得要把吃的食物当成是药,不要像是狗啊、猪啊吃东西一样,这样子的狼吞虎咽。 同时,饮食要节量,不要太过。还有每日外出托钵,除了信众供养的食物之外,不可以挑选食物,譬如说好吃或不好吃的。 不能太过于奢华,也不能够囤积食物。Bamboo:为啥大宝每次说猪、狗的时候,Bamboo都会不由自主地联想到自己?唉~摸了摸自己的肥肚。)所以我觉得「三净肉」能衍生出这样的说法,是基于上面的原因而说出来的。

As food is a daily necessity, we have no choice but to eat. However, the Bhagavan Buddha established codes to encourage eating in moderation. Food should be thought of as medicine, and thus eating in an uncontrolled way was not considered acceptable. Monastics went on daily alms rounds and therefore had to rely on the food they were given.

为什么这么说呢?我们要知道印度自古以来,就有非常广大的群众是吃素的,可以说是一个吃素的大国。尤其是当中 被认为是高贵的种姓——婆罗门,应该大部分都是吃素的。但现在有一些学者会说:“哦,早期婆罗门是吃肉的,后来 才变吃素的。”有一些不同的说法。但是从我们《律典》当中来看,婆罗门大部分都是吃素的。所以,我在想,当时 僧人去托钵乞食的时候,他得到的食物应该肉类并不多的,因为整个印度的环境,大部分都是吃素的。所以想象当时 去托钵的时候,应该也不会拿到太多的肉类的食物。而且僧人托钵乞食的时候,他不是只到那些有钱的、较高种姓那样 的地方去托钵而已,他们也时常会到较低种姓的人家去托钵乞食。象到了比较低种姓的人家去的时候,主人如果吃肉的 话,或许他供养的就会是肉类,一般来说,僧人是必须要接受这个供养的。如果不接受,拒绝的话,可能对方会觉得 不受到尊重,或者觉得“唉~怎么不让我有累积福德的机会”。佛陀当时是最开始打破种姓制度、而且不分 贫富贵贱的,要和所有的人结下善缘,所以基本上所有人的供养都会接受,僧众是没有选择的,我要这个或我要那个的供养食物的选择的。

Although India, from ancient times until the present, has had a large number of vegetarians, there were some people who offered meat to the monks. The Bhagavan Buddha thought accepting alms from both the rich and the poor, who may or may not be vegetarian, would help monastics make connections with all levels of society. They would therefore have to accept offerings of meat at times.

那么,如果依照戒律来说,是不是供养什么样的肉都能吃呢?也并不是的。藏文经典『说一切有部』 的《律典》中提到,大意是说:其中有一些不能够吃的肉,像是猫头鹰等等一些鸟类的肉不能吃;还有青蛙等等爬虫类;还有 狮子、老虎、熊,这些的肉是不能吃的。不止是这些不能吃,而且它们的血、筋、脂肪都不能吃。还有生肉,为己而杀的肉 都不能吃。上面提到的很多肉类,已经不需要依据是不是「三净肉」来判断,而是根本就不能吃Bamboo:我小时候吃了很多 田鸡肉 )。而在能吃的肉当中,也就是不属于刚刚列出来的、被禁止的肉之外,能吃的肉当中,佛陀说你也必须要观察、看 一下它是不是「三净肉」,不然,如果随意食用的话,就会犯下吃「三不净肉」的过患。

However, monastics were not to eat all of the meat given to them. Meat that was considered pure after examination could be eaten while impure meat could not. The Uttara Grantha Vinaya text of the Mūlasarvāstivāda tradition found in Tibet lists several types of animals that one should not eat. They include consuming the meat, fat, and juices from different bird species such as owls, reptiles and amphibians such as toads, and carnivores such as lions, tigers, and bears. In addition, meat should not be raw or killed specifically for the particular recipient in question.

点击图片切换大图/小图
先休息一下

这种「三净肉」的说法主要是对谁说的呢?因为佛陀有出家、在家的二众弟子,「三净肉」的说法是对于出家人说的呢?还是对于在家人说的呢? 还是同时对出家、在家众说的呢?最主要是对出家的僧团说的。但是现存的许多不同部派的《律典》当中来看,似乎也 有提到:居士们,你们也要吃「三净肉」。但是一般来讲,佛陀讲说的戒律当中,提到的可以吃的「三净肉」是针对 出家的僧团,出家人而说的,这点是很清楚的。好的,先休息一下。

Bamboo评论:2007年底,Bamboo在英国读硕士临近第一学期期末的一天,在床上打坐,一边心里默念着“南无本师释迦牟尼佛”,念着念着,突然一股加持力 贯顶而入,似乎把什么打通了,以前一直被隔在胸腔一小块地方的某个神识终于冲到了头部,这一天起才神识和这个身体合一了。从小就感觉胸口有一个无形的大洞,风吹过都生疼,在这一瞬间也完全愈合了。 更不可思议的是,Bamboo突然有了过目不忘的能力。这会儿拿起厚厚的全英文教科书,扫了一遍就象录像一样全记住了,结果好几门考了全班第一,把同学们吓坏了,想不通Bamboo这个 全班英语最差,上课根本听不懂的家伙怎么把一些需要全背的科目都考了第一呢。

之后放假,因为太过得意就回了趟国。其实在父母资助Bamboo留学前有十年未曾跟父母联系过。这会子傻乎乎回了趟父母家,我母亲第二天端出一碗清汤甲鱼,说是特地去市场挑了让现杀,给Bamboo吃的。 Bamboo看着清汤里那飘着的整只甲鱼都很惊恐,那时还不懂佛法,也没吃素,觉得难得母亲对Bamboo好,就硬着头皮把没什么肉,腥气无比的甲鱼吃了。自那刻起,Bamboo过目不忘的能力就消失了。回英国后,第二学期的科目都读得一塌糊涂,怎么也进不了状态,甚至一门还挂了科。 到暑期做毕业设计时,才稍稍恢复了点状态。

后来学佛吃素,以致现在不知念了多少虚空藏菩萨的记忆咒,都恢复不了一点点当时过目不忘的记忆力。后来听大宝讲解皈依的学处时,皈依法 不伤害众生;皈依僧 远离恶友,这两句话让Bamboo醍醐灌顶。

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བོད་སྐད།
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