法王新闻 | 2009年01月

第三期華人宗門實修─宗門實修圓滿日上午 法王傳授菩薩戒 教導次第生起菩提心

The Third day of Gyalwang Karmapa’s Lineage Practice Teachings-morning session

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地點:印度 菩提加耶
時間:2009年01月02日上午 Thursday January 2, 2009
報導:黃靖雅
攝影:噶瑪善治、噶瑪諾布、鄭履中、潘士偉

「佛陀成道地,見證你成為佛子!」

今天法王一開始就宣布要授「菩薩戒」,並給新年禮物(昨日只有宣布),剎時台下歡聲雷動。但法王有點不好意思的說,「我昨天說了哦,布施不一定要真的給一樣東西」,所以今天的禮物沒有白度母畫像(尚未印製完成),「白度母很忙,所以今天還沒來」。

「雖然我沒有給你們畫像,」法王環顧了大眾之後說:「但是,我已經在你們心上畫了一尊白度母,我布施的白度母,會一直跟著你們!」

前行:讓心成為菩提心的法器

接著法王講授「菩薩戒」。

首先是「得戒處」:要在上師、善知識、佛菩薩像前,也就是三寶面前得授「菩薩戒」。

再來是「求戒者」:要具有七種別解脫戒之一,也就是優婆塞、優婆夷、比丘、比丘尼、沙彌、沙彌尼、式叉摩那等七種「別解脫戒」,人和天神都可以求授,但至少需具有皈依戒,法王引經典說:「皈依,是一切戒律的基礎。」

接著是「授戒儀軌」,一般是依據無著菩薩著的《瑜伽師地論》〈菩薩地論〉,漢傳說是彌勒菩薩著;漢傳的菩薩戒,是依據《梵網經》;但法王說,我今天授的菩薩戒,是依據寂天菩薩的《入菩薩行論》。儀軌包含「願菩提心」、「行菩提心」和結合「願行菩提心」三部分,法王說,如果沒有準備好,也可以只受「願菩提心」,「在這佛陀成道的聖地,能夠發起『為利眾生願成佛』的善願,也是非常殊勝的」,但最好是「願行菩提心」同時都領受──

直至菩提藏,皈命諸佛前,法及菩薩眾,如是亦皈依。(~「願菩提心」)
如昔諸善逝,先發菩提心,於菩薩學處,悉如是而住。(~「行菩提心」)
如是為利生,我發菩提心,復於諸學處,次第勤修學。(~「願行菩提心」)

整個儀軌包括前行、正行和結行三部分。法王說,有大福德,才能領受這個戒,受持之後能令菩提心生起並增長。為了累積得受此戒的大福德,所以前行包括「七支供養」,初學者障礙總是比較多,透過「七支供養」,可以淨除逆緣障礙,累積順緣資糧。法王提醒:「受戒之前,要發願讓心真正成為法器,讓心成為菩提心的容器」。

七支供養文:勤修供養,對治諸毒,累積廣大福德

「七支供養」是頂禮、供養、懺悔、隨喜、請轉法輪、請佛住世、功德迴向,這七支供養分別可以對治我們不同心的過患──

一 以頂禮對治我慢;
二 以供養對治慳吝;
三 以懺悔對治嗔恨;
四 以隨喜對治嫉妒;
五 以請轉法輪對治無明謗法的過患;
六 以請佛住世對治無法見佛、親近上師的違緣;
七 以迴向對治不信因果、特別是不信果報的過患。

法王說,接著我們要用妙音唱頌〈普賢行願品〉裡的〈七支供養文〉(大眾唱〈七支供養文)〉──

〈頂禮支〉
所有十方世界中,三世一切人師子,我以清淨身語意,一切遍禮盡無餘。
普賢行願威神力,普現一切如來前,一身復現剎塵身,一一遍禮剎塵佛。
於一塵中塵數佛,各處菩薩眾會中,無盡法界塵亦然,深信諸佛皆充滿。

〈供養支〉
各以一切音聲海,普出無盡妙言辭,盡於未來一切劫,讚佛甚深功德海。
以諸最勝妙華鬘,伎樂塗香及傘蓋,如是最勝莊嚴具,我以供養諸如來。
最勝衣服最勝香,末香燒香與燈燭,一一皆如妙高聚,我悉供養諸如來。
我以廣大勝解心,深信三世一切佛,悉以普賢行願力,普遍供養諸如來。

〈懺悔支〉
我昔所造諸惡業,皆由無始貪嗔癡,從身語意之所生,一切我今皆懺悔。

〈隨喜支〉
十方一切諸眾生,二乘有學及無學,一切如來與菩薩,所有功德皆隨喜。

〈請轉法輪支〉
所有十方世間燈,最初成就菩提者,我今一切皆勸請,轉於無上妙法輪。

〈請佛住世支〉
諸佛若欲示涅槃,我悉至誠而勸請,唯願久住剎塵劫,利樂一切諸眾生。

〈迴向支〉
所有禮讚供養佛,請佛住世轉法輪,隨喜懺悔諸善根,迴向眾生及佛道。

七重因果教授:感恩一切,有情無情

「前行」生起善的動機之後,要以「七重因果教授」(知母、念恩、報恩、悅意慈、大悲、增上意樂、菩提心)和「自他交換法」觀修。

在「七重因果教授」部分,首先是「知母」,父母賜與我們珍貴的人身寶,有了身體和生命才能修行,這本身就是個大禮物,我們要一生感恩。

接著,法王提到,自從小時候被認證後,就很少有機會和生身父母相處,「想起來…好像很不孝」,所以有機會打電話給他們時,「都會帶著感恩的心傾聽」。

接著,法王說,要了知一切輪迴有情眾生生生世世都曾做為我們的母親,要對他們生起難忍的大悲心,並對帶領他們出離輪迴生起強烈的動機,這樣就可漸漸生起菩提心。

接著是「念恩」,要以感念父母恩的心情,感恩一切眾生,沒有人不需要眾生而生活,小至衣服、飲食,都要集結眾人的努力才能完成,連名聲也要眾人才能成辦。所以要從光明面想眾生,讓自己從負面觀點中解脫出來。

法王接著說,其實我也要感恩台灣人,從小開始,我連感冒擦鼻涕的衛生紙都是台灣人供養的,「我好像是台灣人養的孩子」。

在這個注重環保的年代,法王也提醒,我們要感恩「因為共業,所以我們出生到這個悅意的地球」,也要感恩大自然,連一隻小蜜蜂都要感謝,有牠採蜜、傳花粉,我們才有甜蜜的水果吃。所有盡虛空、遍法界的眾生都和我們有甚深的因緣,一切有情無情的萬物,對我們都是有恩的。「但大自然在被破壞中,我們對此要生起難忍的大悲,菩提心也會由此被牽引而出,願我們保護眾生的力量能生起!」

法王再一次強調慈悲的感染力,他說,經典上說又稱「慈氏」的彌勒菩薩,因為不斷觀修慈心、悲心、菩提心,所以感動無數眾生和萬物,當他的腳踏進一戶人家,那一家人馬上都變慈悲了。

正行:在見證佛陀成道之地,見證你領受菩薩戒

法王在「正行」、正式授予菩薩戒之前,特別提醒大家,能在這個佛陀降魔成道之地菩提迦耶領受此戒,非常殊勝難得,大家要珍惜。

「這塊大地,曾經以六次震動,見證佛陀的證悟,」經典記載,當佛陀成正等正覺的證悟時刻來臨,魔王質疑佛陀是否成道,佛陀以「降魔觸地印」手觸大地說:「大地為證,我已證悟,我是成佛者」,菩提迦耶的大地當下震動,見證一位究竟證悟者的誕生,「它也會幫修行人做證,見證你領受菩薩戒」。法王說,在這塊吉祥之地行持一切善業,障礙會減少,功德成億萬倍增長。

法王說,他每次到菩提大塔繞塔,經過菩提樹下的金剛座,「都會覺得,佛陀,那位以人身成就佛道的覺者,還坐在那個金剛座上…當我這樣思維,在這裡所做的一切祈願和唱頌,都顯得特別不一樣。」法王提醒大家,在這吉祥的佛陀成道地,「不要懈怠,不要入寶山卻空手而回,要得到佛的加持。」

接著是「正行」,法王要大家觀想皈依境:金色的佛陀成道相,周圍有八大菩薩和漢藏各大祖師環繞,在此皈依境之前領受菩薩戒。

接著法王以藏文、中文、英文依序帶領大眾念誦三次「菩薩戒」文──

直至菩提藏,皈命諸佛前,法及菩薩眾,如是亦皈依。
如昔諸善逝,先發菩提心,於菩薩學處,悉如是而住。
如是為利生,我發菩提心,復於諸學處,次第勤修學。

三次念誦完畢,法王提醒大家「要思維已經得受此戒」。

結行:從今起,你已是佛子,要心生歡喜

接著,是「結行」。法王說,「結行」要生起歡喜,歡喜自己已經成為「佛子」,所以要念〈歡喜文〉,「我念,你們生歡喜。」接著,法王以藏文念誦〈歡喜文〉。

最後是〈迴向〉。法王迴向之後,提醒大眾「得受此戒之後,要每天思維、憶持,不可違犯任何菩薩戒條」。

迴向之後,法王要大眾一一上台領取新年禮物:內裝法王手書「吽」字種子字的福袋(象徵法王對大家究竟證悟的祈願),和法王手書白度母心咒(象徵法王對大家長壽的祝福)。

On the last morning of the teachings Gyalwang Karmapa conferred the Bodhisattva Vow and spoke about developing bodhichitta.

He began by detailing the necessary conditions when taking the Bodhisattva Vow.

First came motivation and then there needed to be a support – either a human, a deity or a god. The vow could be taken in front of a Lama, a spiritual friend or a support such as a picture. The maximum support was someone who held the eight Pratimoksha vows, the minimum support was someone with the refuge vows.

Third was the ritual. His Holiness chose to use three verses from Shantideva’s “ The Bodhisattva’s Way of Life”, which contained all three possible forms of the vow, the aspirational, the engaged, and both.

When taking the vow we needed the intention to benefit all sentient beings, who were our mothers as limitless as space. The best way to prepare our minds and to accumulate merit, which would develop and increase the power of the vow, was to recite the Seven Branch Prayer.

For beginners there would be more obstructions, difficulties and less supporting conditions, so His Holiness explained how reciting the Seven Branch Prayer functioned as an antidote. Prostration was the antidote to pride. Making offerings was the antidote to miserliness, and developed generosity. Confession was the antidote to all our negative deeds. Rejoicing was the antidote to jealousy and envy. Requesting the buddhas to turn the wheel of dharma served as an antidote to ignorance and karmic obstacles arising from abandoning the dharma. Requesting the Buddhas to remain was the antidote to karmic obstacles preventing us from meeting our gurus. Finally, the branch of dedication was the antidote for not believing in karma cause and effect, and not believing in the results of our own actions.

After accumulating merit we needed to develop good motivation. There were several methods we could use to do this: through exchanging self and others, or through contemplating the chain of cause and effect. In the latter we remember how all sentient beings have been our mothers, or our friends and supporters. Then we recall their suffering and generate the motivation, the pure wish to free all of these beings from their suffering. First we had to recognize that all sentient beings had been our mothers – our parents gave us our bodies and usually showed us affection, especially our mothers. Although they may not have done a good job sometimes, we needed to concentrate on what our parents did to help us, and more than anything they gave us life and a body, the greatest gift we can be given. There may have been differences in the love and affection given, but the gift of a life and a body were an incomparable kindness.

Similarly, all sentient beings in the world were interdependent; indeed there is no sentient being with whom we do not have a connection. Consider clothing, the materials come from animals or plants, and we depend on an infinite number of beings for our clothing. Even fame is dependent on the recognition of others. The global village means that these days we are also connected through business, politics etc. When we consider interconnectedness we usually think of the benefit we received from other sentient beings. Logically we could also consider the converse – the harm they have done to us – but to do so would be neither beneficial nor helpful.

His Holiness then extended the concept of interconnectedness to include not just this world but the galaxy we live in. The world was formed out of the karmic perceptions of all sentient beings, of all sentient beings in the galaxy. We may not be able to go everywhere in the universe but we say ‘limitless beings as vast as space’. In addition, there was interconnectedness evident in the plant and animal world. We depended on plants – the forests that made oxygen for us to breathe. We depended on the insects who pollinated our plants and fertilised them so that they bore fruit which we could eat. Without pollinating insects there would be no delicious fruit.

So all these sentient beings who are kind to us, want happiness, but they only heap suffering on themselves. If we focused on this idea until we felt unbearable compassion – then we would be able to develop the wish to free them from suffering, from impurities and obscurations. Then we could develop our bodhichitta.

His Holiness then gave the Bodhisattva Vow in Tibetan, Chinese and English.

Finally he reminded everybody that Bodhgaya was the place where the Buddha defeated the four maras, so they were no longer present here, and it was a blessed place. This was the place where the Buddha awakened so virtue was increased a thousand fold, and the ground itself was a support. The place itself was like a mandala; we should be happy, excited and courageous. Having taken the Bodhisattva Vow we were now a child of the Buddhas, a member of their family.

Gyalwang Karmapa concluded the morning session by presenting each member of the audience with a small New Year’s gift.