法王新闻 | 2009年01月

第三期華人宗門實修─宗門實修最後一課 噶瑪巴現場導引禪修 「聖地奢摩他」成完美句點

The Third day of Gyalwang Karmapa’s Lineage Practice Teachings-afternoon session

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地點:印度 菩提加耶
時間:2009年01月02日下午 Thursday January 2, 2009
報導:黃靖雅
攝影:噶瑪善治、噶瑪諾布、鄭履中、潘士偉

禪修,是最好的解藥,所以為期三天的華人「宗門實修」,法王今天就決定以「禪修」畫上圓滿的句點。而且史上第一遭的,法王今天還首次公開指導大眾進行「止的禪修」,聖地奢摩他(即「止」),法王親自引導下的座上修,讓大眾驚喜而感動。

延續前一日「生活中的實修」主題,法王噶瑪巴一開始開玩笑說:「其實昨晚如何在生活中修行,我還有話還沒說完,所以今天,要教你們如何實際『禪修』。」

修行要完全投入,才會體會完全滋味

法王說,一般而言,禪修是為了對治煩惱,「但其實,煩惱真的是我們修行道上的莊嚴和威德,它甚至是幫助我們修行的」,怎麼說呢?法王舉華人都很熟悉的「西遊記」故事說,唐三藏西方取經,如果從唐朝邊界一下子就到了天竺,故事一下子說完,太容易了,就沒有感動人心的力量。一定要唐三藏帶著孫悟空、豬八戒等(象徵貪嗔癡)的弟子,千里迢迢,一路艱辛的到達天竺,所取之經,才益顯珍貴難得。

修行也一樣,你要完全投入,才會了解它完整的滋味,「譬如吃辣椒」,如果你只舔舔皮,是不會知道它有多辣的,唯有大口咬下、甚至整支吞下,才會真正體會到它到底有多辣。當煩惱很激烈時,它會提醒我們「觀看自心」,生起驚覺,當下看清楚煩惱的相貌,看清楚它的過患,就容易找到它的要害和對治的方法。這樣清楚強烈的對境,反而比小煩惱更有助於心的修持。

修心,要像修理手錶那麼精細

對治煩惱的禪修,要從粗的煩惱開始,「但方法要很精細,就像修理手錶一樣,我們的心壞了,也要先用放大鏡把病根找出來,再精細的修理,讓心恢復正常運作。」不過,一般人對於煩惱,其實不並真的覺得它有多不好,對它的過患只有模糊、概念化的理解,沒有真正生起想斷除的心,那就像一輛車開錯方向,只是小小調整方向是沒用的,一定要禪修整個對調過來才行,「就像有人叫你吃大便,如果你還想要不要吃就完了,當然馬上說不要!」但要到這種確認的程度,一定要透過經驗不斷觀察,很難一次理解。這是一個慢慢習慣、使心熟練的過程,不能像有些人修安忍,是用「硬忍」的方式,就像練硬氣功一樣,拿磚頭就往頭上砸。

對治煩惱的四個步驟

所以對治煩惱的禪修,步驟約略如下──

第一步,看到:看到本身,就是禪修的起點。

第二步,抉擇:要培養正確取捨的智慧,就像中藥苦口而有益,「有些我們想要的東西,其實不需要;有些需要的東西,又不想要」,這時就要認清並抉擇,我們的心真正需要的是什麼,「然後把機會給善心」。

第三步,對治:用聞思修,對治業煩惱。

第四步,禪修:禪修是一個慢慢使心習慣的過程,修行是要讓心自在、得到自主權,讓硬幫幫的心變軟,變得有彈性。

止的禪修五個身要

至於如何練習禪修,首先是專一,就是要完全的專注,把散亂的心收攝起來,完全集中在一個目標上,讓心如箭,不失焦點不散亂,方法就是「止的禪修」。

「止的禪修」有身要,一般而言就是指「七支坐法」,就是禪修時身體的七個要點──

一 全身要放鬆:身輕鬆,心才會輕鬆;
二 身體要坐直:身正則脈正,脈正則氣正;
三 兩肩放鬆;
四 舌頂上顎;
五 眼睛自然下垂,看著鼻尖;
六 金剛跏趺坐:就是兩腳雙盤,但採單盤「菩薩坐」也可以;

七 手持禪定印:兩手右上左下交扣。

「止的禪修」時,要讓心專注在所緣境上,可以專注外在的所緣境,如一朵花或一種聲音上都可以,重點是「收心」,「是心在看,不是眼請在看」;或者專注在內在的所緣境上也可以,但以觀想「清淨所緣境」,如佛像,利益較大。

法王說:「現在我們就來觀想佛陀成道相,身體是金色的(不是金漆那種金),面容慈祥,眼神柔和的觀照著眾生,要這樣專注的想,剎那剎那的讓它很清晰。」 然後法王要大眾在這樣的「所緣境」中,安住片刻,「最好能融入所緣境」,這就是一次以「佛陀成道相」為所緣境的「止的禪修」。

短座,但多次數

法王提醒,禪修要「短座,多次」,但「短座」的意思,不是讓你身體馬上垮掉,身體要維持同樣的姿勢,但心放鬆即可,馬上垮掉會知掉剛才的專注。法王說,禪修之前,要先讓心放鬆,不想過去,不想未來,這樣再開始前面講的「止的禪修」會比較好。

「不要太計較過去,計劃未來」,法王對此說了一個西藏故事說,有個人得了一小袋米,就很高興的頂在頭上,開始做白日夢,心想如果他賣了這一小袋米、賺了錢,就去買一大袋米、又賺更多錢,就去討個漂亮老婆,生幾個可愛孩子,孩子會來叫他吃飯,他就會故意說:「哦,我現在還不想吃」……想著想著,頭就不自覺得搖了起來,頭上頂著那一小袋米,就嘩啦啦撒了下來!所以空想太多是沒用的。

「我想化成一個祈願、慈悲,永遠跟隨你們…」

「在這起伏不定的時節,這三天的課程就像個家,讓你們的心休息。」三天課程進入尾聲之際,法王說:「我們的笑,諸佛菩薩都看到了;我們的歡喜,遍滿十方。」「課程結束了,但我對你們的心和祈願永遠不結束。真希望化成一個祈願、化成慈悲,永遠和你們在一起。」

但法王也提醒,「要記得佛陀入滅前的叮嚀:『諸法因緣生,都是無常的』,所以你們回去混亂的世界,要照顧好自己的身心;也要把這幾天所學,分享給有緣人,就像『燈燈相傳』,我在遙遠的地方,也會感覺到你們像一盞盞光明的燈亮起來,像一顆顆明亮的星星照亮了夜空,我在遙遠的地方會感覺得到。」

In the afternoon session, Gyalwang Karmapa again spoke on the theme of combining life and practice. Continuing the idea of creating a ‘home’, a place of rest and peace, for our minds, he explained how our practice should be an antidote to afflictive mental states; we needed to know how to meditate and how to use that meditation.

It often happens that students made lots of mistakes in their practice but these mistakes and obstacles should be used as part of the path and could be seen as rungs on a ladder. They could be used as the basis for further practise.

Chili can be very hot and spicy but if you eat it on the side with other food, you don’t experience the entire heat of the chili. But if you eat a chili on it’s own you really get to know how hot it is! In the same way, it is often difficult to identify the true nature of the problems which arise from afflictive mental states. For example if someone is usually bad-tempered, it could be difficult for them to identify the affliction of anger. However, if there were to be an incident when they became very angry, and then, overwhelmed by this anger hit someone, perhaps even wounding them, and, as a consequence got arrested and had to go to court, the consequences of their anger became clear and because it was such an extreme example of the affliction they were able to recognize it.

Having recognized the nature of the afflictive mental state we then needed to know how to get rid of it. We needed to examine how it affects our perception, and then develop the antidote. In this case , anger, the antidote is patience, but we may not have much patience, so we have to use whatever we have. It’s like repairing a broken watch – it’s very small, you need to use a magnifying glass to work on it – it’s not something you can use a sledgehammer on – our minds are like the watch; we need to repair them and make them functional, gradually.

The afflictions and the three poisons are evident in our lives. When anger is present, we have no thought of love, and our actions and words exhibit this. But we have difficulty identifying the affliction as a fault. Faults are like a heap, we have to get to the bottom of the heap. We tfind ways to convince ourselves that it’s a small problem or normal: everyone gets angry sometimes, we have to get angry sometimes. This is denying that it’s a fault, and, until we can perceive these afflictions as faults, it will be difficult to clear them.

When we can see the afflictive mental states as a fault, we can’t wait to get rid of them. It’s like smelling something foul which makes you want to vomit. You know that you have to rid yourself of them as clearly as you know when you have to go to the toilet.

Unfortunately, when we see these afflictions as a mass of faults we are often in two minds about them: part of us doesn’t want to give up the afflictions and another part wants to get rid of them. It’s obvious that you can’t go backwards and forwards simultaneously. In the case of a team, if there is disunity, you call the teamleader. Our mind is the same. What do we want to accomplish? What is compatible with how things are? If you are undecided, nothing will be achieved. So we need a teamleader in our mind. Where do we find it?

Basically our character is good. If you draw a horse that deosn’t look like a horse, it can’t be a horse. Anger, pride or jealousy are not essential to life, but without goodness, knowledge and wisdom it is difficult to live. Our nature is inherently good and kindhearted. Without that we would be unable to live, so it is important and necessary to distinguish between what we need and what we want. Some things we don’t want are beneficial such as medicine. Sometimes we neglect the things we need and focus instead on getting the things we want, giving them power over us.

If we know that the afflictive emotions are a fault, we can give the power to the part that sees the afflictions as a fault, and then the antidote will be effective. Meditation was the tool for getting to the root of the afflictive mental states.

His Holiness then gave instructions on how to meditate.

First he explained the correct vajra or half vajra posture, joking about how difficult this could be for Westerners, whereas Tibetan children had vajra posture competitions! The focus for one-pointed meditation could be any object, such as a flower, but the most powerful focus was an image of the Buddha.

His Holiness then led the audience in a meditation on the Lord Buddha at the point of enlightenment, golden in colour because of his radiance, his eyes full of love.

His Holiness advised that it was important not to let the mind wander away from that form. Generally, the rule for beginners, was to meditate for short periods but often. This did not mean getting on and off your meditation seat but rather staying put and having several short sessions consecutively. It was important to use our awareness, recognizing when the mind was distracted and then using that awareness to bring it back to focus again. In daily life every one was so busy that it was important to find time for resting the mind and body.

His Holiness gave an example of how that should feel. Once upon a time in India, there was a king who had to move from his old palace to a new one, but he didn’t trust anyone so he asked one of his ministers to help him. The king promised him a new house, and enough food and money to live on for the rest of his life so the minister agreed and then spent the whole day going backwards and forwards, without resting, but by the end, he had completed the task. Thankfully, he went to the new home the king had given him and sat down: Ahh! That, said His Holiness, is what resting your mind feels like.

It was also important to be focused on the present and not distracted by thoughts about the past or the future.

Another story illustrated the dangers of this. Once upon a time a beggar, who had nothing, managed to accumulate some grain. He sold it, made a profit, and was able to buy more grain. Suddenly his future looked bright. Walking across a bridge, carrying the grain atop his head, he began to daydream. If he sold this grain, he could buy more, make an even bigger profit, get a wife, and then he would have children. His life would be transformed. He would be so happy going home every night to his wife and children. They would greet him…The beggar was concentrating so much on this daydream of the future that he dropped the grain. It fell into the water and was ruined. Once again, he had nothing.

The teaching was finished. In his concluding remarks the Gyawlang Karmapa observed that the teaching had been like a family reunion. The ‘family’ had chanted together, studied the Dharma, smiled together. His Holiness was certain that the buddhas and bodhisattvas of the ten directions had witnessed the uncontrived smiles of the people gathered at Tergar for the teaching. He thanked the Hwa-Yue Foundation for sponsoring the teaching and the hard work its members had put in to make it all possible. He then dedicated the merit.

He concluded, “When I am in Dharamsala, I hope to be like a lamp or a star in the sky at night – a place for your hope. We can be lamps for each other.”