法王新闻 | 2021年01月

【除障祈愿】影片•第六天-《二十一度母禮讚文》、《道除障啟請文》、《願望任運啟請文》

Aspirations to End Adversity Day Six – Opening Words

རྐྱེན་ཟློག་སྨོན་ལམ་ཆེན་མོ། ཉིན་དྲུག་པ།

時間: 2021年01月25日 21:00开始(北京时间)

第六天播放的影片

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I hope all of you are doing well. Today is the sixth day of the Aspirations to End Adversity. Today we will recite the Praises of the Twenty-One Taras and two supplications to Guru Rinpoche, Clearing the Path of Obstacles and Spontaneous Fulfillment of Wishes together.
各位好!今天是祈願共修第六天,我們要一起念誦的是《二十一度母禮讚文》和蓮師的祈請文:《道除障啟請文》和《願望任運啟請文》。

The teachings on Jetsun Tara were very widespread in India even in ancient times. For example, to this day, ancient images of Tara can be still seen at all of the sacred Buddhist sites, including Nalanda and Bodhgaya. In India at that time, it seems that everyone had great faith in and devotion to Tara, regardless of whether they were Mahayana or Foundation Vehicle practitioners.
至尊度母的法系,在古代印度也非常的流行。比如我們現在在那爛陀寺、菩提迦耶金剛座等佛教的重要聖地,也都會看到很多保留至今的古老度母像。當時的印度,不論大乘或小乘,所有的佛弟子們都對至尊度母抱有極大的虔信。

In terms of Tibet, Jetsun Tara was Jowo Atisha’s yidam deity. At first, he had no desire to go to Tibet, but Tara made a prophecy and explained why he should, so he decided to go, as is described in his biographies. Tara is also a primary deity of the Kadampa school; she is one of their four main deities, the goddess of activity. These days, our main traditions of White Tara come down from the Kadampa school. Tara has been the yidam deity of many Tibetan lamas of all traditions, and many incarnations of the Karmapa have considered Tara their yidam deity. 若以藏傳佛法來看,阿底峽尊者的本尊正是度母。據傳尊者最初並沒有想要前來藏地弘法,後來因為度母的授記,才決定要入藏弘法,這在尊者的傳記中都有記載。另外,度母是噶當四本尊中,消除障礙的本尊,度母可以說是噶當派最主要的本尊。我們現在的白度母傳承,主要也是源自噶當派。總之,藏傳佛法所有教派的許多大師,都一致以至尊度母作為主要的本尊,歷代的噶瑪巴中許多位也是如此。

In particular, these Praises to the Twenty-One Taras are ubiquitous in Tibet, and all monastics and laypeople, young and old alike, recite them daily. Even illiterate people learn them by ear and recite them. When I was little, I remember my mother reciting Tara. She was illiterate but had learned it orally and recited it with a pure intention.
特別是《二十一度母禮讚文》,在藏地更是廣為流行。不論僧俗、長幼、男女都會念誦,甚至是文盲都能琅琅上口。我記得小時候,母親就時常念誦度母,雖然母親不識字,但仍抱持著虔敬心念誦。

Regarding Jetsun Tara’s origin, there is not time to teach it at length today. But in brief, Tara is usually said to be an emanation of Avalokiteshvara, and in Tibet there is a tradition that both White and Green Tara were born from tears from his two eyes. In the Sutra of Manjushri Expanding in All Directions, translated into Chinese by the Indian master Amoghavajra, it is said that when Avalokiteshvara entered the samadhi of Tara, the appearance of all, from his right hand there shone light rays, out of which Tara arose.
關於度母的源流,今天沒有時間詳細講解,但是簡略來說,至尊度母是觀音菩薩的化身。藏傳佛法更認為,綠度母和白度母分別是觀世音菩薩兩滴眼淚的化現。印度的不空三藏大師,在他譯成中文的《佛說大方廣曼殊室利經》中提到,觀世音菩薩進入「普光明多羅三昧」後,從右眼放出光明,化現出至尊度母。

There is a custom of revering Tara as an emanation of Avalokiteshvara or as Avalokiteshvara changing to a female form. For example, in some sutras and tantras, she is called by the names Tara Lokeshvara and Tara Avalokiteshvara. It is Tara who is said to offer protection from the eight dangers, and the White Lotus Sutra similarly says that Avalokiteshvara protects us from the eight dangers. To sum it up, the Mahayana teaches Avalokiteshvara embodies the compassion of all buddhas. He then arises in the form of Tara and becomes for us like the image of a loving mother. This allows us to be closer to her and have a stronger feeling. There are similar instances in many religions in the world. For example, in Christianity, many faithful people have especial faith in and regard for Mary, the mother of Jesus. I think this is similar to that.
概言之,度母是觀世音菩薩的化現,或是觀世音菩薩所示現的「女相」。比如一些經典和續典當中,也有稱之為「度母世間自在」與「度母觀音」的傳統。另外,至尊度母的「救八難」形象,也與《法華經‧普門品》提到的觀世音菩薩救護八難有關。總之,大乘佛法認為觀音是諸佛慈悲的形象展現,而當他以至尊度母的形象出現時,就如同一位慈愛的母親一樣,讓我們感到親近與親切。在許多宗教當中都有類似的形象,例如基督教當中的「聖母瑪莉亞」,特別受到信徒們所敬仰,我想這是相似的。

Then we will recite two supplications to the great Guru Padmasambhava of Uddiyana. These two are the most common of the many different prayers to Guru Rinpoche. They are both termas, but there are different versions based on different terma texts that were revealed at different times. For the texts included in our prayer book on this occasion, the first, Clearing the Path of Obstacles, is based on the terma revealed by Tulku Sangpo Drakpa, and the second, Spontaneous Fulfillment of Wishes, is based on the terma revealed by Tulku Bakhal Mukpo.
其次,今天要念誦的第二個內容,是祈請鄔金大阿闍黎蓮花生大士的兩部祈請文,這兩部祈請文是所有的《蓮師祈請文》當中最為普及的。兩部都屬於伏藏法系,不同時代取出的伏藏也有許多不同的版本,總之,今天我們所念誦的這兩部,第一部《道除障啟請文》是祖古巴喀木布所取的伏藏。第二份〈願望任運啟請文〉,則是祖古桑波查巴所取的伏藏。

There are versions of both these texts that were revealed later by the great tertön Chokgyur Lingpa, but it seems that the original tertöns to reveal them are the two whom I just mentioned. But neither of these two tertöns is all that well known, so I think many people probably have never even heard of them. Thus, in order to show gratitude to these two for revealing such important treasures as these, we have included them in our prayer books, and I have taken this opportunity to translate them into Chinese, though there is some room for improvement in some places. I hope that later, when they are right in all respects, I will be able to share them with you all.
雖然,後代的大伏藏師秋吉林巴,也曾取出過這兩部祈請文的伏藏。但是最早取出這兩部祈請文的應該是上述的兩位伏藏師,不過他們比較鮮為人知,不是很出名,所以我們大概都沒聽過他們二位的名字。因此,為了感念他們二位取出如此重要伏藏的恩德,所以這次我們收錄了他們的版本。藉此機會,我也新譯了中文的譯本,但我認為還是有許多需要修訂和改進的地方,之後,待全部定稿之後,希望能夠呈獻給各位。

Of these two, Clearing the Path of Obstacles is a supplication combined with the life story of Guru Rinpoche. Guru Rinpoche had a great influence on the spread of Buddhism in Tibet, and thus all followers of Tibetan Buddhism owe him a deep debt of gratitude. It is said that though he was kind to Tibet, his kindness went unnoticed. Unlike other Indian scholars and masters, there were many in Tibet who objected to and denigrated Guru Rinpoche. The reason this occurred is on the one hand that his detractors did not know his sources, scriptures, and reasons, and on the other, it is that a few of Guru Rinpoche’s followers seem to have had the fault of being overly zealous. In brief, if we were to say that Guru Rinpoche was only kind to the Nyingma school or that he belonged to the Nyingmas only, it would be mistaken. He was, as the Tibetan saying goes, the guru of all gurus, the sun of all suns. The second buddha Padmasambhava is not a guru for a specific school or a specific dharma lineage; he is like the universal jewel for all Tibetans, and I think it is important to keep this in mind.
《道除障啟請文》是一部結合蓮師的生平而成的祈請文,蓮師對於將佛法弘揚於藏地有極大的貢獻,所以所有藏傳的佛弟子,都應該發自內心地感念他的恩德。然而,就像是「恩德雖盛卻難知」所言,藏傳佛教人士對於蓮師,卻有許多的誹謗和辯證,這是蓮師獨特也有別於印度其他大師的地方。之所以會有人誹謗蓮師,一方面是因為有些人對於蓮師的背景、歷史不理解所致,但一方面也是因為有些蓮師的弟子,對蓮師有一些比較偏激的想法所致。雖然一方面來說,蓮師的確是對寧瑪派有,但是如果總說蓮師是專屬於寧瑪派的話,也是會有問題的。就像藏族中的諺語所說:「上師是所有人的上師,太陽是所有人的太陽。」第二佛蓮師是不分宗派和教派的共同上師,就像是所有藏人共同的珍寶一樣,這是要放在心上的。

It was during the reign of King Songtsen Gampo that the dharma was initially established in Tibet. He built the Pehar shrine in Rasa. Then dharma was practiced for five generations until King Tride Tsugtsen or Me Oktsom. After he passed away, some ministers from the Shang clan acted badly and the shrines and statues of the Three Jewels that had been built were destroyed. They said, “This southern Nepali dharma is not appropriate for Tibet,” and decreed laws prohibiting the practice of dharma.
Then, when King Trisong Detsen, still a youth, reached the age of twenty, he saw the reasons for practicing the dharma and repealed the old laws prohibiting dharma practice. He invited Buddhist masters and the king himself listened to dharma teachings and read dharma texts.
從歷史的角度來看,藏地在松贊干布王時期,開始有了佛法的信仰。當時,在拉薩建立了白哈爾寺。如此直到赤德祖贊時期,歷經五代都廣修佛法。但在赤德祖贊離世後,在一些大臣的策劃下,毀壞寺院、佛像等等三寶的所依,他們說:「這南方傳來的東西不適合藏地。」因此立下了禁止學佛的法令。之後,在赤松德贊王二十歲時,就認識到學習佛法的重要性。所以取消了學佛禁令,並迎請佛教大師們入藏,也親自聆聽大師們說法、讀經。

His intention was to propagate Buddhism widely in Tibet, but at that time, many people thought that since Buddhism was not the old religion of Tibet, it would conflict with propitiating deities, harm everyone, and offend the gods. They thought it would interfere with politics and bring human and animal diseases, famine, and so forth. They had very strong suspicions and worries. Because of this, King Trisong Detsen summoned the kings of minor kingdoms such as Asha and the external and internal ministers to hold a council to discuss this thoroughly. First, they considered what the Buddhist scriptures mean. Second, they took their forefathers’ deeds as an example. Third, they investigated in great detail with the help and guidance of the Buddhist ministers and saw that not only was there no fault in practicing Buddhism, it was also very beneficial. They saw three main reasons it would be beneficial.
雖然藏王有廣弘佛法的計畫,但是當時許多藏民們仍然認為佛法並非藏族傳統信仰,與藏民習慣拜神供養的儀式不合,而因此遭殃。同時他們也擔心學習佛法會褻瀆神明,動搖政權等等,或者造成各種天災人禍,因此大家都感到懷疑和不安。因此,藏王安排阿夏等諸侯國的國王,與內外各邦的宰輔大臣,一起開會共同探討,一方面為了研究佛法的本意,二來參考古代藏王的事蹟,三來請佛法大師們協助他們深入研究和理解。最終他們確定修行佛法不會出現上述的各種危機,而且還會有很大利益。具體來說,利益主要有三方面的原因:

The first reason was that the meaning taught in the dharma was all excellent and that practicing it would accomplish excellent and unexcelled aim. Thus, it would not turn out badly; it could only turn out well.
一,佛法的義理良善,能夠讓人們嚮往一種無上的追求。而且這種追求的最終目標是善,並非惡的。這是第一個原因。

Second, one had to look at long term benefit and happiness; one could not say that short-term circumstances are an adequte reason to say dharma practice is inappropriate.
二,應該關注的是究竟的利益,暫時的一些情況,不應作為禁止修行的理由,這是第二個原因。

Third, for many generations, their forefathers had practiced dharma, but nothing bad and no problems had occurred.
三,過去的藏王時代也曾有修行者,當時也沒有發生任何危機。

For these three reasons, they agreed that there was no fault in practicing the dharma and had an edict inscribed with their commitment to not denigrate and not extirpate the dharma. The inscription can still be seen to this day.
由於這三方面的原因,確定修持佛法是無害的,為了讓後代都能重視佛法,避免毀佛之事再起,所以開創了傳世至今的誓約儀式。

Old manuscripts from the time of the kings call Guru Rinpoche, “Padmasambhava, the scholar from Uddiyana who achieved siddhi.” At that time, Guru Rinpoche was the most powerful siddha in India. Though King Trisong Detsen wished to propagate the dharma in Tibet, many internal and external obstacles arose, as did many bad signs and omens. They invited Guru Rinpoche, and he tamed the gods and demons, quelling all the bad signs and omens. He made the gods and demons enter people’s bodies, and they admitted their faults, saying that what they had done was wrong. People could not help being amazed and had to believe. Their earlier suspicions and wrong thoughts were all pacified. Thus his help and assistance to the king in spreading Buddhism at that time was an extremely great kindness.
贊普時代的古老文獻當中,稱蓮師為「得證成就的鄔金大班智達蓮花生」。蓮師是當時印度修行成就功力最高的一位大師。藏王赤松德贊雖然想要弘傳佛法,但是遇到內外的許多阻礙,還有各種的惡兆、惡相,因此迎請蓮師入藏,降伏一切藏地本土的天魔,赦令立下誓言,讓惡兆消失,並讓那些西藏的天神入於人身,講出並承認自己曾經的過失,讓所有藏民大為驚呼,並生起了信心,消除了所有之前的懷疑和顧慮。蓮師對於當時贊普在藏地弘揚佛法上起了很大的助力和幫忙。

Guru Rinpoche’s life story is taught in many different ways. Some say he was born miraculously. Some say he was born from the womb. There are also people who say that it is fine to say both—that he was born miraculously and also born from the womb. Regarding how long he spent in Tibet, people explain it in many different ways. Some say he spent three years in Tibet, some say six years, and some eight, twelve, or eighteen years. According to the termas, the shortest time is fifty years, and some say he spent over one hundred years. If these are explanations of visions of pure appearance, you can say as long as you like, but when trying to determine the order of historical events, it must be presented in terms of how it commonly appears to human beings. Thus, researching the Kama texts of the Nyingma and the actual ancient Tibetan historical documents and chronicles to establish the sequence of events would give confidence. In particular, there is a life story of Guru Rinpoche written by the Jonang Jetsun Taranatha called the “Indian” or the “Threefold Conviction.” It has some interesting, distinctive features, and I think it would be good for all of us to read it.
蓮師的傳記也有很多不同的說法,有些主張蓮師是化生的,有些主張是胎生的,有些認為兩者皆可,可以同時是化身也是胎生。至於蓮師在藏地住了多久,有些主張三年,有的說六年,或者十二年、十八年等等,有不同的說法。很多伏藏法中記載,蓮師住藏時間至少五十年,甚至可能超過百年。當然,從「淨觀」的角度來說,我們可以自由地去詮釋,但若是認真去計算實際的年份,則勢必依循人類共通的標準來衡量,這就必須參考寧瑪教傳和《巴協》等西藏古歷史文獻來做比對研究,這才是比較可靠的方法。特別是覺囊派多羅那他尊者撰寫的一部蓮師傳——《圓具三信》,堪稱是「蓮師印度傳」。這是一本別具特色的傳記,各位若能閱讀的話,我認為是非常好的。

In brief, please have great faith and devotion in Jetsun Tara, the embodiment of the activity of all the buddhas, and in Guru Rinpoche, who is superior to all others in wisdom, love, and power during this degenerate age, and let us recite these prayers together.
總之,我們祈請至尊度母,她是諸佛事業之體現。也祈請五濁惡世中,智仁勇超勝的鄔金蓮花生大士,請各位帶著虔誠的信心,一同來念誦。