法王新闻 | 2021年01月

【除障祈愿】影片•第七天-《文殊真實名經》

Aspirations to End Adversity Day Seven – Opening Words

རྐྱེན་ཟློག་སྨོན་ལམ་ཆེན་མོ། ཉིན་བདུན་པ།

時間: 2021年01月26日 21:00开始(北京时间)

第七天播放的影片

Youku
youtube
facebook

法王藏文开示音频

I hope all of you are doing well. Today is the seventh day of the Aspirations to End Adversity. Today we will recite the Manjushri Nama Samgiti together.
各位好!今天是除障祈願共修的第七天,我們要一起念誦的是《文殊真實名經》。

Manjushri’s name appears in many Mahayana sutras. He is one of the most important of all the numerous bodhisattvas. Lord Atisha and others have said that in Tibet, there are two main streams of the Mahayana: the lineage of profound view and the lineage of vast action. Of these two, the lineage of profound view primarily follows Manjushri. He thus has the same importance as Maitreya, the regent of the Buddha and the future fifth buddha of this aeon.
「文殊師利」普見於大部分的大乘佛經,他是諸大菩薩中的上首。在西藏,阿底峽尊者和多位大師認為大乘佛法有兩大法系:一系是甚深見派,一系是廣大行派,甚深見派的源頭就是文殊菩薩,他和將在未來成佛的賢劫第五佛「補處彌勒菩薩」的重要性,可謂同等。

In China, Avalokiteshvara, Manjushri, Samantabhadra, and Kshitigarbha are considered the four foremost bodhisattvas, and each has his own well-known sacred site. Avalokiteshvara is associated with Putuo Shan, Manjushri with Wutai Shan, Samantabhadra with Emei Shan, and Kshitigarbha with Jiuhua Shan. These four mountains are recognized as the sacred Buddhist sites in China.
漢傳佛法則有將觀世音菩薩、文殊菩薩、普賢菩薩和地藏菩薩奉為「四大菩薩」的傳統,每位菩薩又有各自的道場聖地:觀音聖地普陀山,文殊聖地五台山,普賢聖地峨眉山,地藏聖地九華山,是為漢傳佛教當中的四大聖地。

There are several different accounts of Manjushri’s origin. According to the Sutra of Manjushri’s Nirvana, which was translated into Chinese in the third century by the Western Qin lay practitioner Nie Daozhen, Manjushri was born into a Brahmin family in Shravasti. He could speak as soon as he was born. When he grew up and completed his education, he became so learned that no one could rival him. Later he came into the presence of the Buddha, went forth, and became a monk. Through the strength of his heroic-stride samadhi, he was able to send emanations in all directions. It was prophesied that he would awaken to buddhahood four hundred and fifty years after the Buddha passed into nirvana, the sutra tells. This is a sutra that describes Manjushri as a human being.
佛教歷史上,針對文殊菩薩的本生有許多不同的說法。公元三世紀時,中國晉代的聶道真居士在他所翻譯的《佛說文殊師利般涅槃經》中說,文殊師利是出生於舍衛國「梵德婆羅門」家族的後裔,一出生後就會說話,稍長時精通論議,無人能比。後來在釋迦牟尼佛座下出家,依首楞嚴三昧的力量,在十方世界化現各種化身,曾得授記,將在佛陀涅槃四百五十年後成佛。若根據這種說法,則文殊菩薩是一個佛陀在世時的人。

Many other sources say that he awakened to buddhahood innumerable aeons ago. The Sutra of the Features of Manjushri’s Realm, which is the fifteenth section of the Ratnakuta Sutra, teaches that in the future, Noble Manjushri will waken as the Tathagata Samanta Darshana in the southern realm Viraja Sanchita. Similarly, the White Lotus of Compassion Sutra describes that he will waken to buddhahood in Viraja Sanchita. But the twelfth chapter of the Avatamsaka Sutra states that Manjushri is in the world called Kanakavarma to the east, and the Avatamsaka Sutra also explicitly says that Manjushri dwells at Wutai Shan in China.
另一種說法認為,文殊菩薩在無量劫前早已成佛。還有,在《大寶積經.文殊師利授記會》記載:「此菩薩……當來成佛,號為『普現如來』,其佛土在南方,號『離塵垢心世界』、『無垢世界』。」而《悲華經》也有同樣記載,文殊菩薩會在未來將於南方的「清淨無垢寶真世界」成佛。另外,《華嚴經•如來名號品》則說:「……東方過十佛剎微塵數世界,有世界名『金色』,彼世界中有菩薩名『文殊師利』。」漢傳佛教認為五台山是文殊菩薩的道場,就是出自《華嚴經》。

Today we are reciting the Manjushri Nama Samgiti, and you might wonder what its importance is. It is extremely important, especially in terms of the secret mantra. The reason is that it encapsulates all the key points of the path of secret mantra. For example, the great commentary on the Kalachakra Stainless Light says that there is no way of knowing the path of tantra without knowing the Nama Samgiti and that Kalachakra must be known through it.
今天我們會念誦《文殊真實名經》,此經是非常重要的,尤其在密教當中,由於它囊括了一切密法的核心意涵。比如《時輪密續註‧無垢光疏》中就提到說:不知《真實名》者不知密咒,而且必須透過《文殊真實名經》來理解《時輪密續》。總之,有不少類似的說法。

It is explained in many ways in the Indian commentaries found in the Tengyur. Some explain it as yoga tantra, some as unexcelled tantra, some as the Kalachakra tantra, and some as a dzogchen text. There is a story passed down from the lamas of the past that when Chandrakirti met Chandragomi, Chandrakirti asked him what he knew. Chandragomi replied, “I know the Panini grammar, the Praise in One Hundred and Fifty Verses, and the Manjushri Nama Samgiti. I don’t know anything else.” It is said that Chandrakirti then understood that Chandragomi was saying he knew grammar and both sutra and tantra. Thus it seems that this means that only when one knows the Manjushri Nama Samgiti does one enter the ranks of those who know tantra.
並且收錄在「丹珠爾」當中有關此經的印度論疏裡面,有些依照瑜伽續的觀點來解釋《文殊真實名經》,有些依循無上瑜伽的觀點,或以《時輪密續》,或大圓滿的觀點來解釋。有些祖師們的傳說中提到,當月稱阿闍黎初見月官居士時,月稱問道:「你熟悉什麼著作呢?」後者回答:「我只懂《波尼波文法》、《一百五十讚佛頌》和《文殊真實名經》,其他都不懂。」月稱阿闍黎一聽就知道,月官居士的意思是他已經掌握了梵語、顯教與密教的一切義理。由此可知,只有了知《文殊真實名經》,才能算是一名了知密咒乘者。

The Manjushri Nama Samgiti in the editions of the Tibetan Kangyur was translated by Pang Lotsawa Lodrö Tenpa. The translation by the great translator Rinchen Sangpo is not in the Kangyur, but the entire root text of his translation is found in Acharya Manjushri Kirti’s Commentary on the Manjushri Nama Samgiti, which is found in the Tengyur. Also, most Tibetan traditions seem to use the translation by Rinchen Sangpo in their rituals and prayer books. I did memorize the Nama Samgiti when I was little, but it must have been Rinchen Sangpo’s translation. Thus now when I chant this text by Pang Lotsawa, I’m not used to it, and it feels as if I can’t pronounce it. However, scholars say that Pang Lotsawa’s translation is the closest to the Sanskrit manuscripts found in India and Nepal.
現在收錄於「甘珠爾」中的《文殊真實名經》,是邦譯師‧堅慧的譯本。雖然仁欽桑波大譯師的譯本,未收錄在「甘珠爾」當中,但是完整編列於「丹珠爾」當中,也就是文殊稱阿闍黎所寫的《文殊真實名經大疏》,其中完整地收錄了全部頌文。藏傳佛法所修持的《文殊真實名經》版本,大部分都是仁欽桑波的譯本,我小時候背過此經,當時的版本大概就是仁欽桑波的譯本,因此這次讀誦邦譯本時,因為不太熟悉,所以念得不是很順。現今在印度、尼泊爾一帶流傳的印度版本,內容則與邦譯本比較接近。

The Manjushri Nama Samgiti is listed in old catalogs from the time of the dharma kings, and there are several different copies among the Tibetan manuscripts found in Dunhuang. The colophon of Pang Lotsawa’s translation explains how it had been translated by earlier translators and became well-known. There is also a handwritten Kangyur that was copied in Druptop Orgyenpa’s Pukdrak Monastery. The colophon of the Manjushri Nama Samgiti in it mentions several different translations, saying, “There is also a translation of this by Lotsawa Chimey Bumpa and Üpa Garge. There is also a translation by Mang Kharwa.”
根據學者研究,有這樣的說法:一般來說,早在吐蕃贊普時代,當時的古老目錄中就有此經,而敦煌出土的藏文文獻中也有一些不同的版本。在邦譯版的譯跋當中記載說:本人翻譯此經前,已有譯師將其翻譯成藏文並為人知。而在鄔金巴大師的祖庭菩札寺當中,收藏的一部手寫版「菩札甘珠爾」,其中收錄的《文殊真實名經》經跋中提到:「此經另有:契美繃巴譯師、衛地的卡爾格譯師、芒卡爾譯師等之譯本。」可見,此經譯本極多。

However, usually when there are multiple translations of a single text, the various editions of the Kangyur and Tengyur chose only one, for otherwise it would have been too much to print. Because of this, many of the translations are no longer extant, which is a great loss for us. Thus, in this electronic era, if we could search for, gather, and compile as many different translations as we can, it would be of great benefit to do some research and analysis.
然而,藏傳佛教收錄經文的傳統做法是,在同教部經典的眾多不同譯本當中,只會擇一保存。不然,經文太多無法木刻、印刷,所以,許多譯本的傳承已經斷絕,實在是很可惜的。所以我認為,既然來到了電子時代,若能盡力尋找和收集各種版本,對於校對和研究,會有很大的幫助。

The Sakya Pandita praised this text highly, writing: 「With regard to this king of all tantras, commentary on all scriptures, quintessence of all pith instructions, source of all teachings, and pinnacle of all vehicles, Reciting and Praising the Names of Noble Manjushri…」
文殊怙主薩迦班智達就曾盛讚此經:「是一切密續之大王、一切教授之準則、一切口訣之心要、一切教法之源頭、一切乘法之頂峰」。對於《文殊真實名經》,極為讚嘆和重視。

Similarly, all Tibetan scholars and practitioners hold the Manjushri Nama Samgiti in high esteem. When the Tibetan Kangyur was compiled, it was placed in the first volume of tantra. It is said that Lotsawa Rinchen Sangpo recited it 100,000 times in Sanskrit and 100,000 in Tibetan and sponsored 100,000 repetitions by others. Lord Tsongkhapa also is said to have recited it three times daily before dawn, never missing a day.
同樣,所有藏傳佛法的學者與實修者,都非常重視此經,例如編輯「甘珠爾」的目錄時,此經會編錄為「密續部」的第一本經。傳說仁欽桑波大譯師,自己曾親誦過梵語版《文殊真實名經》十萬次,同時藏語版《文殊真實名經》十萬次,又供養請人念誦此經十萬次。此外據說,宗喀巴大師每天早課時,都會完整持誦此經三次,不曾斷絕。

There is no Tibetan tradition—Sakya, Geluk, Kagyu, Nyingma, and so forth—that does not have its own commentary on the Manjushri Nama Samgiti. The earliest Tibetan commentaries were probably written, I believe, by the eleventh-century masters Rongsom Chösang and Ngok Shedang Dorje. There is also a commentary written by the translator Pang Lotsawa himself.
而薩迦、格魯、噶舉和寧瑪各派中,都有大師為此經作疏的記載。在這些藏語寫成的註疏中,最早問世的,應該是十一世紀時的諸大師們所寫的註解,包括榮松‧法賢班智達,和俄‧瞋恚金剛所寫的註解,另外還有母本譯者邦譯師自己所寫的古老註解。

The main point is that Manjushri is the deity who represents the prajna and wisdom of the buddhas. The Buddha himself celebrated and welcomed those who entered his teachings not just out of faith and longing but through investigation with profound prajna. He said that such prajna is not just present from birth or gained through study; prajna can also be gained by the power of blessings from others.
總之,文殊菩薩代表的是諸佛的智與慧。佛陀更鼓勵和稱讚弟子們,學習佛法時,不應只重視信心和敬慕,更要培植甚深的智慧。這種智慧,不單可以靠天份,或者通過後天的學習,其實來自聖者的加持也是同樣可以得到的。

So now please join me in reciting with wholehearted faith and devotion the Manjushri Nama Samgiti with the aspiration to swiftly develop profound and vast prajna in your being.
因此,接下來請以專一的虔心,向文殊菩薩祈請,一起念誦能夠加持我們自心生起深、廣、迅速智慧的《文殊真實名經》。