法王新闻 | 2021年02月

2021讖摩比丘尼春季辯經課程_第八天第一堂課開示

Arya Kshema Spring Teachings Day 8 – the first session

༸རྗེ་བརྒྱད་པ་མི་བསྐྱོད་ཞབས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་ཐར་བཀའ་ཁྲིད། བདེ་བྱེད་མའི་དཔྱིད་ཆོས་ཉིན་བརྒྱད་པ།

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時間:2021年2月25日晚上9:00-10:00(北京/台北/香港)February 25, 2021
中文口译:堪布丹杰
笔录:释妙竹
English text source from: Arya Kshema website

007钦列巴的大老板——米觉多杰
Day 8: Commitment to Study, the Fourth Good Deed, Travels and Miracles

བོད་སྐད།
English Translation Audio
中文翻译音频

首先是课诵……

今天又和大家一起,有这样一个课程,我自己也觉得很难得。同样在最开始要问候各位。今天要接续昨天讲到的部分,也就是米觉多杰是如何依止钦列巴的。

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先给大家看一个投影比较好。第一个是桑杰年巴,然后是敦木扎西俄塞、确珠僧格、噶玛钦列巴。这四位就是米觉多杰的四位上师。这里有他们出生的年份,圆寂日和他们的享龄等等。其中敦木扎西俄塞圆寂日写的是1545年,噶玛钦列巴没有找到他更清楚的画像唐卡。这里还需要进一步研究的是桑杰年巴,他出生的年份找到正确的应该不难,圆寂日确认是1525年。敦木扎西俄塞出生年份我们得要找出来。确珠僧格的放错了,他应该是活了八十多岁,这里49是写错了。

The opening slide showed Mikyö Dorje’s four principal teachers—Sangye Nyenpa Rinpoche, Dülmo Tashi Öser, Chödrup Senge, and Karma Trinleypa — and the details, where known, of their births and deaths. Karma Trinleypa was born in the Fire Bird Year, 1456 CE, so, when the Eighth Karmapa first summoned him, he was already quite old. When they finally met, after several invitations, on the 4th Day of the 11th month in the Year of the Fire Pig, (1527 CE) Karma Trinleypa would have been sixty-one years old.

因为诺言,硬撑了一年的噶玛钦列巴
The Authentic Guru Karma Trinleypa

这位噶玛钦列巴,噶玛巴米觉多杰如何依止他的呢?法王米觉多杰很早就发过两三次的信函,邀请噶玛钦列巴,后来又发出了更严厉的一封信,要他一定要来嘎千大营为他上课。同时,他也询问了钦列巴的意见,问他谁能作为为他授近圆戒的和尚,钦列巴就回答:“大堪布确珠僧格是因劫陀阿罗汉的一个化身,他适合出任。”因此嘎千大营也下令说,要噶玛钦列巴和大堪布确珠僧格一起到大营来为米觉多杰传戒。大营不仅下令,也派出了信使前往邀请。钦列巴就动身前往大营,路上就跟大堪布确珠僧格会面了,就一起前往工布的嘎千大营。

It was Karma Trinleypa who advised Mikyö Dorje to receive his full ordination vows from Joden Khenchen Chödrup Senge, said to be an emanation of Arhat Angita. When the Eighth Karmapa sent a further invitation with an escort, explaining why Karma Trinleypa should come to him, Karma Trinleypa duly made his way towards the Garchen in Kongpo. On the way, he met up with Khenchen Chödrup Senge, and they travelled together.

之后在火亥年,1527年11月4日,就抵达了工布多闻山的闭关中心,它的名称叫杨坤桑给汪波洞,在那里谒见到了法王米觉多杰。由于大堪布确珠僧格年事已高,必须先休息几天。钦列巴把握了这几天时间,给法王传授了六法的口传。在同一月的22日,是一个吉祥日,本来计划这一天钦列巴为米觉多杰授课,但是法王觉得等不了了,还要再等那么多天,所以他请钦列巴大师早一点上课。就提早到17日为法王授课。17日这一天早上就开始讲说,首先是《般若》,下午就在大众中,当时有接见大众的时候,钦列巴也做了百供的供养。法王米觉多杰在众中也顶戴了黑宝冠,做了回向、祈愿等等。从那时候开始,钦列巴每天早上都尽量地为法王供养佛法、上课。

Their first meeting with Mikyö Dorje was at Sampel Wangpo Upper Monastery at Nomtö Mountain Retreat Centre. Then, while the elderly Khenchen Chödrup Senge rested to recover from the journey, the Karmapa gave Karma Trinleypa the lung for the Six Yogas of Naropa. The astrological signs suggested that the teachings start on 22nd of the month, but the Karmapa insisted that they start earlier on the 17th, so Karma Trinleypa began teaching Mikyö Dorje Prajnaparamita on that day instead.

在22日那天,也就是米觉多杰接受近圆戒的那天。堪千确珠僧格为授戒和尚,钦列巴就担任羯摩阿阇黎,岗波的大堪布释迦桑波担任屏教师,还有厝•给敦岗巴的确杰戴兄瓦和喜得瓦等,在具备完整的比丘众的情况下圆满受了比丘戒。

A week later, on 22nd, Mikyö Dorje took full ordination vows: Khenchen Chödrup Senge was the khenpo, Karma Trinleypa was the ritual master, Gampo Khenchen Shakya Sangpo was the private questioner, Sangpu Chöje Shakya Sangpo was the timekeeper, and the Chöje of Gendun Gang Deshong with the necessary number of bhikshus from the four monasteries completed the quorum.

接着隔天早上又继续上课,钦列巴早上就为法王讲解《般若》,下午就讲解《俱舍论》,就这样依序地传授了《宝性论》《辩中边论》《辩法法性论》《集量论》《释量论》《量力宝藏论》《别解脱戒经》《根本戒经》《阿毗达摩集论》和《入中论》等等,法王都能通晓,并且上课都会逐一地记下笔记。接着钦列巴依循了涅瀑瓦所写的一个律仪的学处,依照这个版本详细地讲解了律典的各种学处,同时也教授了“羯摩法”,还有三式作法等等的这些内容。象我们现在冈仓噶举中法王和法子们在传戒的时候,所用的戒律的“羯摩法”都是钦列巴大师所传下的。不仅如此,象平时我们求授五戒,就是居士戒,或者给予圆满的居士戒,或者说八关斋戒,或最开始的皈依戒等等,这些传戒仪轨都用的钦列巴大师所编辑的仪轨。

Mikyö Dorje’s studies with Karma Trinleypa resumed on the 23rd; in the morning, he studied Prajnaparamita, and Abhidharma in the afternoon. As the study schedule progressed, Karma Trinleypa offered teachings on the Sublime Continuum, Differentiating the Middle from Extremes and Differentiating Dharmas and Dharmata, the Compendium of Validity, the Commentary on Validity, the Treasury of Valid Logic, the Pratimoksha Sutra, the Vinaya Sutra, the Compendium of Abhidharma, Entering the Middle Way, and other texts. He gave a detailed teaching on the precepts of the vinaya as explained by Nyakpuwa, including the Rituals of Motions [by which the sangha makes decisions and conducts its business] and the practice of the Three Foundational Rituals [sojong, yarney (the rainy season retreat), and gakye (the ritual which releases monastics from the bounds of the rainy season retreat)]

当时米觉多杰跟钦列巴说:“我需要从你那里得到三乘律仪完整的教授”。所以钦列巴就依止了萨迦班智达的大发心的仪轨来传授了『愿』『行』这两个菩萨戒。而且依循法王通汪敦岱传承的喜金刚九尊的现前坛城圆满供养了四灌,因此他就得到了密乘戒。Bamboo批:意思是要得到过四灌,才需要遵守密乘戒。所以Bamboo现在根本不用理那个密乘戒。

Karma Trinleypa gave Mikyö Dorje instruction in the three types of vow: the Bodhisattva Vow of aspirational and engaged bodhichitta according to Sakya Pandita’s Great Bodhichitta, the pratimoksha vows, and tantric vows.

同时也解释了喜金刚的密续,这不仅在噶玛冈仓中,甚至在整体噶举各个教派中,最主要密续的教授内容有:接续显、密见解的论典——《宝性论》、《甚深内意》,还有《喜金刚密续》,也叫“二柄续”。他当时就详细地为米觉多杰讲解了《喜金刚密续》(二柄续),同时讲解了日修的各种现行仪轨、坛城;教授了坛城的绘制、制作象征性地解释了如何结手印Bamboo批:佛经里好像是没提到过什么手印,最多说咒要和坛城配合)、唱腔音调各方面;还有时轮的历法;五部声律学等等,尤其是从第七世法王确札嘉措传承下来的所有甚深的法教;还有亥母本尊法、文殊、白度母等等这些灌顶成就的仪轨;还有上百次的给予法王筑蒋莫传承的长寿灌顶。如果我们详细来看到底教了什么那真没办法讲完,简略来说,就是以上这些内容。

Karma Trinleypa explained the precepts of the vinaya very clearly so that even today, the observation of the Three Foundation Rituals in monastic communities is based on his instructions, as are the lay vows and the eight fasting vows. The teachings he received on tantra mainly came from the Sublime Continuum.[Uttaratantra]. He gave him the complete four empowerments and tantric vows of the Nine Deities of Hevajra according to the Sixth Karmapa Tongwa Dönden’s ritual texts, and taught him the mandalas, mudras, and melodies. He taught Mikyö Dorje the Kalachakra tradition, the five types of sandhi (Sanskrit grammar), and all the profound dharma passed down from the Seventh Karmapa Chödrak Gyatso that Mikyö Dorje had not yet received. He gave him instructions on the yidam deities of Vajravarahi, initiations and sadhanas of Manjushri and White Tara, and the One Hundred Long Life Empowerments from the tradition of Machik Druppay Gyalmo, which is the version most frequently given in the Karma Kagyu tradition.

那么他是如何上课的呢?首先在为法王上课的时候,噶玛钦列巴会来到法王这里。法王在钦列巴进来的时候,会从法座起身。有的时候常常这些“法王”他不会站起来,甚至我们现在会形容说“有些人是不需要站起来的”“有些人是需要站起来的”。象我以前在西藏的时候,我都不站起来,也不能说某些人来我才站起来,某些人来我不站起来,这样也不行。就算是政府官员来我也不站起来,很多上师来我也不会站起来。不然的话,这个人来了我站起来了,反而会造成一些麻烦。

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要把这些外国弟子的头压下来

到了印度之后,我就变成全都站着。为什么我都要站着接见大众呢?因为很多外国人来见我的时候,他们没有藏民的规矩会头低低地这样子来见。 侍者都很幸苦,要把这些外国弟子的头压下来,说“头低点、头低点”。我觉得这样子好像也不太好,如果是我站起来,而不是坐着,站起来就可以说“Hello, good morning!”对他来讲,他要给我哈达也就不需要弯下身来。我觉得这样比较容易,他献完哈达就回去了。所以后来我都站起身来接见所有的人。(Bamboo批:之前在西藏,平头老百姓基本私下见不到他,只有政府官员和一些大上师们及有特殊关系的才能来见,所以他都不站起来。到了印度,国内外的普通大众都可以预约私人觐见他,不需要通过什么特殊关系,所以他都站起来迎接。因为诸佛恒时顶戴一切众生。只是2014年后,这个平等觐见的门关闭了,Bamboo也来不了印度见他,所以他就离开了印度。

总之当时,钦列巴来的时候,法王米觉多杰会站起来向钦列巴礼拜,也为钦列巴敷座,等等这些礼数做完之后,他会合掌向钦列巴稍事请安问讯,之后法王不会再多话了,直接开始上课。上课的时间是从早到晚。午餐的时候,有时候法王对于早上钦列巴的课程升起很大的虔诚信心,特别的感动、特别的感恩,他就会跟钦列巴说:“我想为您献上一篇赞文。”有的是赞文,有的是祈请文、长寿文,都文字非常的优雅,大概有十篇左右。在其中一篇的跋文中,米觉多杰说:“祈请登上加行道,是第一法、智者名讳广传雪域的噶玛钦列巴长寿。”当别人见到法王的这些赞文时,就感觉到刹那间自心稍微产生了些震荡。总之之前有提到,第一堂课教的就是《现观庄严论》般若的内容,由嘎瓦八择译师翻译的《现观庄严论》的“根本颂大疏”。刚开始这堂课是每天三次,当时法王觉得每天上三堂课词义也不太难理解,就请求可不可以每天多上一些,每天上六堂课、七堂课可以吗?钦列巴听到后就有点不太放心,有点不太相信,就说:“如果每天讲这么多,就只是我讲了一下,你听了一下而已。是不可能内心记得或领会这些意义的。”没想到米觉多杰听完之后呢,他就把前几堂课中教过的内容全部的非常清晰地毫无障碍地全部讲出来。钦列巴听了非常地高兴,同时也非常地惊讶,他说:“喔~如果是这样的话,或许您真的是听一次就够了。这样也很好,课程可以很快地讲完。是最好了”因此,每天就改成上六堂课。

In this way, over the course of three years, Mikyö Dorje became a scholar. According to His Holiness’ calculations, the actual time spent studying was only 14 months. How was this vast curriculum covered in such a short time? Basically, through Mikyö Dorje’s exceptional diligence and single-mindedness towards his studies. The teachings lasted from sunrise to sunset, punctuated by audiences and meetings, and Mikyö Dorje took less sleep so that he could use the night hours for memorising the texts. Initially, there were three teaching sessions per day but Mikyö Dorje asked for it to be increased to six or seven sessions. Karma Trinleypa was reluctant to do this at first, but once it was obvious that Mikyö Dorje was able to retain both the words and the meaning without any difficulty, he increased the sessions to six a day.

象我们佛学院,如果一天当中有六七堂课,大家应该都很累。当时你看还没有手表这些,所以一堂课到底是多长也不知道。很多时候都要看着天,太阳到哪里了才知道该下课了,或该上课了。看太阳可没那么准,所以当时说六堂课,搞不好每堂课还很长呢。我们现在都没法想象那时是怎么样的上课方式。总之,当时就改成六堂课每天,从总义到字义,到后面的附录、注解,都很快地教完了,法王也完全通晓。同时还讲解了《俱舍》还有《现观庄严论》其他慈氏的论典。钦列巴也都写了注解,所以钦列巴就用他的注解为法王授课。其他的论典,钦列巴有时是逐字地讲解;有时是从它的意义上去讲解,针对一些难点去释疑。总之法王对于所有的论典的内容他都完全地精通。

那么米觉多杰依止钦列巴的时间总共是多久呢?总共是三年,之前好像也讲过,是三年。但是真实算起来才14个月,而在这十四个月当中没有中断的课程合起来算是一整年。以前可不象现在有什么放假啊、周末,是每天都会上课。上课的时间刚刚提到从早上太阳升起到傍晚都不停地在上课。那么常常下课之后,法王就会去接见大众,有时候也会去“恰杰”——一些嘎千的会议,因为噶玛巴是嘎千大营的boss , 头头,所以他偶尔也会去这些会议。这个会议上会给茶,而且会安排位子,所以这种会议也被称为“茶席”。以前在楚布寺还有这个传统,在文革之前旧的楚布寺中,石头的阶梯往上走,上去之后就会有一个平台,进入大殿之前的平台,这个就被说成开会的,就是茶席这样一个地方,就是当年嘎千大营的传统。(Bamboo批:开会就是吃吃喝喝)总之,米觉多杰会去接见大众,偶尔会参加一些茶席会议,除此之外他什么都不做,就是专心地听闻这些课程(Bamboo批:低级的活不愿干,吃喝拉撒都让人伺候着;高级的活又干不来,就只能整天装着听课、读书)。有的时候课程当中,可能钦列巴讲着离题,或者重复讲,昨天讲过的怎么今天又在讲,或者离题讲太远,马上法王米觉多杰就会请求他说:“请您讲到这里就可以了,请您再回去讲经典吧。”就是请您不要左右绕,专注在经典上去讲。那么钦列巴就会回到经论继续上课,总之是完全不浪费时间,专注上课。(Bamboo批:记得很多人觐见大宝时,会跟大宝说:我想拜您当根本上师,你要给我灌这几个顶,传那几个法。大宝只好说:我都不收弟子了。Bamboo听到时想,到底谁是上师,谁是弟子啊?

They observed the usual protocols before each session; Mikyö Dorje, as the student, would rise when Karma Trinleypa entered the room, ask after his health, prostrate, and prepare his seat to show respect, but no time was wasted in small talk. Whenever Karma Trinleypa digressed, Mikyö Dorje would prompt him, “This is the point we got to. Please continue from there.”

Bamboo评论:坐着听课当然不累,但讲课的人备课要花多少时间。Bamboo以前大学教书时,备两堂课,每堂课45分钟,就算是比较熟的课也至少要花两三天,否则课堂上根本讲不下去。一天六堂课,从早讲到晚,真是不把钦列巴当人,当畜生一样压榨啊!典型的中国当今那些贫贱出生,一发迹,就开始996、007的老板原型。

除了上课之外,法王也不会闲聊。譬如说“今天天气怎么样啊?”“谁来了?”“见到谁了?”这些闲聊是都没有的。法王为了要听课的质量更好,所以他的饭量都减少,喝茶的次数也减少。不然因为喝茶太多总会上厕所,同时饭量也减少,因为吃太多常常会打瞌睡。为了上课时不要打瞌睡,更有精神,法王会尽量穿着比较薄的衣服。工布比起西藏其他地方是气候比较炎热的地方,比较热所以人也比较没精神,有时候比较疲劳。但是法王米觉多杰因为太喜欢这些经论,不管对于这些经论的道理或文字,他非常地有兴趣、非常地喜欢,所以他总是非常地有精神,兴致盎然地在听课。听课的时候,他不会不懂装懂,也不会说:“不管,反正以后会懂的。”而是马上就会问钦列巴,这是什么意思?他就一定要搞懂。(Bamboo批:有问题应该下课后问,或者思考钻研后,第二天上课前问,否则老师讲课的思路都常常被打断。

During the six sessions, they studied the texts, the explanation of the text, and the explanation of the meaning. If Mikyö Dorje could not understand something, instead of pretending he did or thinking that he would learn it later, he would immediately try to resolve his doubt. He ate less food so as not to become lethargic, and drank less tea so that he didn’t need bathroom breaks. He also wore fewer clothes, in order to stay alert.

就这样子大概一整年,或者一年多的时间就在这样子上课。钦列巴大师因为当初有承诺,就是为法王授课一年,因此那时候就跟法王告假(Bamboo批:钦列巴这个人的确是一诺千金,但也太迂腐,对这样的学生信守承诺等于是害了自己和无数人),但是因为法王还有些想要学的没有上完,再加上师徒两人感情也深了,舍不得分开,所以法王当时就说:“好吧,我要一路送你。”从工布启程,一路上去送钦列巴大师。一路上,钦列巴都还继续把之前没有讲完的课程内容,不断地为法王讲课。在牛年1529年1月3日,法王为了钦列巴长寿住世,向他做了广大的供养,不仅如此,还在米觉多杰撰写的长寿祈请文和供养文等等,就在大众中让大家念诵、唱诵,总之,准备的非常的周到、圆满。这时,钦列巴该要回拉萨了,但是他们还是舍不得分开,所以,就拖延到10号才走。到了11日那天,钦列巴临行的时候,师徒父子俩人就相互地顶礼,头顶互相地碰触,相互地祈愿。当时米觉多杰就发愿说:“直到我成就菩提果位之前,祈求您都能做我的善知识。”这是米觉多杰对钦列巴的一个祈请。你看到那时候法王对于这样一位具德的上师,是这样依依不舍,而且时常言语当中也会流露出感恩啊、赞叹等等。所以他周围的侍者也都看到,深受感动。(Bamboo批:就是为了做给周围的人看,这个米觉多杰真是虚伪可怕至极。)这就是法王米觉多杰怎么样依止噶玛钦列巴的一些情况。

For one whole year, they studied continuously, without missing a single day, His Holiness commented. Later, people said that Mikyö Dorje must have recognised certain qualities in Karma Trinleypa. Finally, the time came when Karma Trinleypa had to leave, but there were still a few texts left to be studied, so Mikyö Dorje accompanied him on his journey, and Karma Trinleypa continued to teach him as they travelled. Mikyö Dorje accompanied him as far as Drakchi. On the 3rd day of the first month of the Ox Year [1529 CE], Karma Trinleypa made vast offerings for Mikyö Dorje’s long life and also offered a new long-life prayer and a list of offerings that were read aloud in the gathering. However, Mikyö Dorje and Karma Trinleypa were so reluctant to part company that they postponed. Eventually, Karma Trinleypa departed on the 11th. Master and student prostrated in farewell, touched heads, and made aspirations. At that time, Mikyö Dorje said, “Please be my spiritual friend until I reach enlightenment.”

我们从米觉多杰所写的《现观》和戒律的注解中,你都会看到里面有他对于噶玛钦列巴的祈请文,都会有感恩钦列巴的文字、用词等等。主要原因就是因为大部分大经、大论的学习,都是跟随钦列巴得到的。我们现在在读诵米觉多杰的这些著作,都是米觉多杰还有他的上师噶玛钦列巴的恩德,所以要带着感恩的心,要效法他们的心意,然后,要好好地效仿他!Bamboo批:最强脱口秀!Bamboo笑得脸上的肉差点没掉下来。想起大宝也常常对流亡藏人教育说:我们有现在的生活,都是因为尊者(达赖喇嘛)的恩德。于是没有身份、没有房子、没机会学习,流离失所,备受欺凌的流亡藏人们都对被一个小流感疫情吓得躲在豪宅里一年多都不敢出来的西藏人民最高领袖感恩戴德。

The histories relate how the attendants and entourage were amazed at the way the Karmapa praised, exalted, and respected Karma Trinleypa. The commentaries that Mikyö Dorje later wrote on the great texts of the Prajnaparamita, the Middle Way, and Abhidharma contain prayers, supplications and praises of Karma Trinleypa– the guru who had taught him the explanations of the texts. We need to remember and learn from this example of the authentic guru and student, His Holiness concluded.

钦列巴后,再无名师愿教米觉多杰
The Eighth Karmapa’s Education Continues

那么米觉多杰依止的上师象之前提到的有那么四位,再加上嘉察扎西囊伽,是不是就这么几位而已呢?不是的。米觉多杰他知道佛经是非常浩瀚的,无论如何是学不完的,之后米觉多杰从康区前往卫藏地区的时候,他想如果当地有那些好的善知识,无论是萨迦、格鲁、直贡、达隆、觉囊,或者夏鲁巴,或者新译密续,或者旧译宁玛的善知识,如果当地有的话,我都要去依止他,去求法,都要恭敬、供养,但是他当时却都没有遇到。尤其当时法王对于时轮金刚非常想要学习,所以他就在萨迦、达波、格鲁三个大的传承中去问这些有经验的人,有没有这样的大德,熟悉时轮的大师。当时最出名的就是恰蒋扬扎西囊伽和班钦释迦竹巴的弟子-班钦多加这两位,所以米觉多杰尽力地迎请他们二位,当时法王是想,先交流一下、沟通一下,看这位班钦多加是不是值得依止的上师,结果沟通之后,班钦多加的回复是“如果要依止我为上师的话,我才会过去。”好像是在说:如果没有把我当成上师的话,我才不会过去。总之班钦多加就回了这样的信给法王。法王米觉多杰就认为这个缘起不太好,就没有继续邀请了。

From Mikyö Dorje’s viewpoint, there was no end to listening and contemplation. When he travelled, from Kham to Central Tibet, if he found an authentic guru, no matter which tradition they belonged to, whether they were Sakya, Geluk, Drikung, Jonang, Shalpa, or Nyingma, he sought teachings. In particular, he was looking for clarification on Kalachakra. Ja Jamyang Tashi Namgyal and Panchen Dorgyal, a student of Panchen Shakya Chokden, were said to be the most knowledgeable at that time, so Mikyö Dorje invited them. Panchen Dorgyal agreed to come, but Mikyö Dorje had a vision that the interdependent circumstances were not right and put a halt to the invitation.

之后,米觉多杰到了直崆的地方,在迎请的队伍中,有辩论、解释队伍的一个人,那个人刚好就是班钦多加。当时法王就用巴沃祖拉陈瓦的一些内容来问班钦多加(Bamboo注:应该是通过巴沃祖拉陈瓦来问班钦多加)。

Later, when Mikyö Dorje went to Drikung, Panchen Dorgyal was there, leading the discussions which were part of the welcome ceremony. Mikyö Dorje joined in the debate by proxy through Pawo Tsuglak.

首先就问:“密续三戒论中提到有声闻十八部,那就有十八种不同的戒律,如果这样的话,是否就应该有十八种部派呢?那这十八种部派有什么差异呢?”当时班钦多加还大声唱着,有声调地回答法王:《俱舍》《中观》《量论》当中零零散散地说了很多「有部」「经部」这些见解。接着法王就问:“到底声闻十八部部派之间的差异是什么?”不止是「有部」「经部」的差别,那声闻十八部的差别是什么?接着这个班钦多加回答了一大堆,但都没有重点。法王这时又追问他说:“所以你是不是说不出这声闻十八部的差别呢?”这时班钦多加就开始稍微发抖了,声音也变小了,以颤抖的声音说:“这个我是回答不出来的。”

His first question to Panchen Dorgyal asked about the differences between the eighteen schools cited in Sakya Pandita’s Treatise on the Three Vows. Panchen Dorgyal answered rather grandly in a loud voice, ”There are many different schools among the Exposition schools that we know from the Abidharma, Middle Way and texts on Validity.” When Mikyö Dorje contested his answer, and asked again for the differences between the eighteen different schools, which included both Exposition and Sutra schools, Panchen Dorgyal gave a very long answer but there was no main point to it. So Mikyö Dorje rechallenged him, and, in a quivering voice, Panchen Dorgyal admitted that he had nothing to say.

接着法王就说:“「有部」不承认自觉,「经部」承认,「唯识」承认自觉谛实有,「中观」遮布自觉,密乘又认为依靠自觉才能成佛。”

Mikyö Dorje then succinctly answered his own question: It is said that the Exposition does not accept self-awareness, the Sutra school does, the Mind Only assert that self-awareness exists ultimately, the Middle Way refutes self-awareness, and in tantra one is said to awaken because of self-awareness.

“那么这些不同的宗派当中,解释所说的自觉有什么不同吗?”法王又问他。这时班钦多加的声音又更小了,更加的开始发抖,说了一些《量论》中所执相、能执相、了相等等这些内容,没有关联的一些回答。法王追问说:“那么你是否说不出这些自觉的差异呢?”他最后以很小的声音回答说:“是的,我不懂。”他只好承认不懂。之后这个列席就散会了。

He then posed a second question, “What are the differences between these different schools’ positions on self-awareness?” Panchen Dorgyal attempted a reply, but floundered on, talking about “apprehended images” and “apprehending images”. Mikyö Dorje challenged him, “Well, are you saying you do not know the differences between those self-awarenesses?” And in a very subdued voice, Panchen Dorgyal admitted this.

当时,法王并没有直接去问,而是透过巴沃祖拉陈瓦去问的,班钦多加就对巴沃祖拉陈瓦说:“本来呢,我还自以为已经通晓这些经教了,事实上我之前就知道法王仁波切他会来,所以我没日没夜地去读经,去做复习,尤其我还准备说,法王搞不好会问这个问题,问那个问题,反正我尽量做了很好的准备,怎么今天法王问我的这些问题,我之前读的内容都不是他问的。怎么会这样呢?法王是不是有神通呢?”总之,班钦多加就跟巴沃祖拉陈瓦这样说。这是巴沃祖拉陈瓦他的一个著作中记载了这样一段故事

Later, Panchen Dorgyal confessed to Pawo Tsuglak Trengwa that he had spent day and night studying and reviewing in preparation for the Karmapa’s arrival, but the Karmapa hadn not questioned him on any of those texts. “He must be clairvoyant,” he concluded.

之后,米觉多杰写在纸上,又问班钦多加譬如说,戒律上的问题,没有授戒和尚的话,这时候是米觉多杰接受了班钦多加的提问,先是对于戒律上的提问:“如果没有授戒和尚的话,能够得戒吗。”之后班钦多加又写了七个纸条,有关般若、量论、俱舍、中观、密乘,尤其是时轮的一些略述,最后在一个纸条上写着说:“上面提到的诸大论典的见解都是「他空」的见解。”就把这些纸条供养给米觉多杰。法王这是回答说:“你首先问到戒律的问题,其实没什么问题的。你可以去阅读我所写的有关律典的一个论著。”之后他又说:“你刚刚说,所有的见解都包含了他空见,这是不合理的说法。”法王这样回答他。这时班钦多加又引用了很多中观、量论,等等引经据典来证明这些内容就是在讲他空见,这时法王米觉多杰又给予了很多殊胜的回答。巴沃祖拉陈瓦也记载了这段故事。最后班钦多加就写说:“你一直这样子回答的话,大家会不再相信噶玛巴呀。”怎么说呢,就是法王的回答不是这么厉害的。有这样一段故事。(Bamboo批:他就根本不敢当面和人辩论。

Panchen Dorje Dorgyal submitted seven scrolls of very subtle questions to the Karmapa. The Karmapa successfully contested his views, but he maintained respect for Panchen Dorgyal.

另外法王本来还希望请到的一位上师就是恰蒋扬扎西囊伽,这位上师在迎请的时候,他也最后没有迎请到。但是这位大师有很多珍贵的、殊胜的经典。他把这两百多部珍贵的经典供养给法王,法王就说:“我现在能够这么有佛学的知识,都是因为阅读了他所给的这些经典。”总之,当时米觉多杰很想依止很多的上师,但是最后都没有如愿。所以米觉多杰就曾说:“至尊钦列巴年事已高,其他合适的上师也还没有找到,如果真的能够依止到一位具德的总经教师的话,那么我一定要彻底地去听闻、思维、学习,通晓密续的大海。”

Because he wanted to study Kalachakra, Mikyö Dorje invited the authority at that time, Jamyang Tashi Namgyal. He was unable to come but sent two hundred rare and well-edited texts for the Karmapa to study. Mikyö Dorje wanted to study with other scholars; however, he failed to find any equal to Karma Trinleypa.

从这段我常想到说,我小的时候总是很想看很多的经书,但是当时在西藏,需要跟中央政府去请求。像是十六世法王的法子-司徒仁波切、嘉察仁波切都还在印度,就请求一定要让他们来西藏,不然就让我能够到印度去,请求了很多次。总之,后来我也到了印度了,也努力地想要多找到一些经典,两位法子还有怙主金刚持创古仁波切,还有怙主金刚持波卡仁波切,还有怙主天噶仁波切,还有怙主桑杰年巴,我在跟随他们听过了许多的课程,当然不是在象佛学院当中那样子去学经,我虽然也想像在佛学院那样子去学,但总之也没有那样的因缘,总是没有很满意。(Bamboo批:千辛万苦地跑到印度拜师学艺,却发现全是一群没啥文化,不懂装懂,但骗术都修炼至最高境界的大上师。900年的骗术传承代代相传,至今国内国外遍地开花。

记得中间有一次,我想说:我是不是干脆去三大寺去学习一下。毕竟我不是一个普通的噶举僧人,有噶玛巴的名号,如果就这样子去三大寺学法的话,就噶举派里面来看,可能会有一些不同的看法,我也得考虑、顾虑他们的想法。所以有的时候一些格西来到上密院,我那时候在上密院,我就把握机会跟他们多做一些请教、一些佛法上的讨论。总之,就我自己来讲,是很想要学习这些经论,但是像各位佛学院那样子去学的机会,还有来为我上课的人是很难得的。我想当时米觉多杰好像也是这样子。

At this point His Holiness reflected briefly on his own experience of trying to get an education equivalent to a shedra education.

你看他当时想要找那么多的上师,都没有办法如愿,但他还是继续地、不断地,看他对经典是这么的喜欢,这么的有兴趣。总而言之,米觉多杰是非常的喜欢经书,喜欢阅读的。其他人也知道法王是这么地喜欢经书,所以他身边自然就会有别人送给他的各种显密的解释的论典等等。所以他日夜不停地阅读和背诵这些经典,他当时是怎么去学习的呢?他是很仔细的,譬如他会把经论当中的纲要的部分标成红色;主诵和引文的部分,会画成黄色;如果读到里面的文字有不懂的话,他就会记下说:“此处意思不明,要参阅其他某某经典”这样,他会写下来。有的时候,为了经典里面很难理解的地方,他也会去找其他的经典,参考其他的经典,看不同的这些说法,他会做很多这样的记录,别的经典是怎样解释的。只要他知道某某人特别精通某部论典,他就会把握机会去请教他。不仅是就这样请教,他也会把听到的各种的重点都记录下来,方便他日后还能继续地去思维,去等等(Bamboo批:方便他日后抄袭)。

Mikyö Dorje had a great interest in texts, and he was able to acquire many rare texts. He received innumerable volumes of commentaries on the sutras and tantras, and he would spend all night reading and memorising them. He would mark the outlines in red and the root text and citations in yellow. If there was a subtle point about the text that was not clear to him, he would write in small letters that he had not understood this point or that he needed to look at such-and-such a text. If a point was extremely difficult, he made annotations about different interpretations in different commentaries. He would ask other learned scholars about the meaning of the text. If there were a point he regarded as very important, he would make a special note of it and use this to resolve any doubts he might have.

当他在背诵像《量力宝藏论》的解释,和上下《俱舍》的注解等重要典籍时,他是怎么背的呢?他从初夜开始背诵,直到破晓鸡鸣的时候,这样子背。大概是晚上九点、十点之后,甚至到早上三、四点破晓。这段时间他都不断地在背诵这些经典。而且就这样行之有年,不是这样做几天、背几天、几月、几年,而是行之有年。(Bamboo批:虽然夜深人静时读书效果更好。但米觉多杰说自己在别人都睡觉的时候读书无非是掩人耳目,谁知道他读没读。这样就好白天不做事睡大觉了。)

When memorising important texts such as the Treasury of Valid Logic and its commentary or the commentaries on the higher and lower Abhidharma, he would recite them from 10.00 pm at night until 3.00 am. He continued this practice for many years.

他不仅仅是学习佛教的这些大经大论,他也学习很多声明、文法。像是他依止了精通两种语言——梵文和藏文的噶玛译师叫仁谦扎西,学习声明,声明学叫ཀ་པ་ལ་;还有旃陀罗、般字经,像是梵文的文法书;还有修辞学、声律学,还有印度的梵文、藏文这些松举巴、丹举巴的文法等。同时他也依止了工敦的释迦仁钦,臧敦多杰桑波,阿里巴磊廓恰等等这些大师学习《量论》。就学习很多辩论的、量论的、摄类的,等等内容。还有他依止巴沃祖拉陈瓦,其实是他的弟子,但是他也跟随他学习让炯多杰的《历算集论》,还有一个智者噶千,他的历算。当时历算需要书写下来,所以他就学习智者噶千的历算书写方式等等。(Bamboo批:跟精通梵文的老师,不学梵文学声明(藏文拼读法);跟教历算(数学)的老师学书法。说白了就是这个人难度高的懒得学,也学不会,就玩点擦边球。)

In addition, he studied the grammars by Kalapa and Candragomi, metaphors, composition and the Sanskrit and Tibetan writing systems with Karma Lotsawa Rinchen Tashi. He studied Indian and Tibetan texts on validity with Kongtön Shakya Rinchen, Tsangtön Dorje Sangpo, Ngaripa Lekpay Gocha, and others. He received teachings from Pawo Tsuglak Trengwa on the Compendium of Astrology by Rangjung Dorje and Compositions that Please the Learned.

他身边总是围绕着这些精通经教的上师。他不仅是对于精通经教的上师,甚至只是知道文法的这些有知识的上师,都对他们非常地恭敬,他都会视他们如金子一般,视他们如开启自己智慧的眼睛一般,也将这些上师看成遣除无明的光明一般。所以他对于所有的这些有识之士、大师们都恭敬承侍,这是大家都看到的。同时巴沃祖拉陈瓦也曾经在《贤者喜宴》中提到说:“很多时候会有那些自称很厉害的人来到法王的面前,但是最后都被法王的威德、利诱所降伏,甚至都不敢问法王问题,就算问出了一些问题,最后也会感到很后悔,当时真是问错了等等。虽然法王是这么的殊胜、厉害,当然有的时候是因为身份,所以很多人见到法王就自然变成那样,事实上也是法王天生有这样的智慧,自然就降伏很多的人。但是米觉多杰总是说自己智慧浅薄啊,我孤陋寡闻啊,我什么都不懂啊,这不仅仅是法王谦虚的话,而是他发自内心真实的一个想法。”巴沃祖拉陈瓦说:“这是我所知道,我亲眼看到的。法王不是那种外表装着很谦虚,内心很自傲,不是这样的。而是米觉多杰是真的如他所说那样的他内心中是那样的想法。”

He respected all scholars or people with qualities and spoke of them as more precious than gold, ‘the eyes of prajna”. According to Pawo Tsuglak Trengwa, the Eighth Karmapa was able to defeat even scholars whose knowledge and understanding were said to be unrivalled. Nevertheless, he would say humbly, without any pretension, “I have little intelligence and little education, so I know nothing.”

这次时间的关系,跟各位讲了米觉多杰是如何依止善知识的内容大概就讲到这里。做一个结语,总之,法王对于这些无明的众生,总是有强烈的慈悲之心,同时他也对于如此珍贵的佛教的教法,法教非常地爱惜。所以他不畏艰辛地去依止了好多的善知识,去听闻思维。他也将这一切闻、思、修持的经验完整不吝惜地教导给其他人。这是法王米觉多杰佛行事业非常特殊的一个部分,所以我们应该要很好地依法王为典范来学习。 (Bamboo批:越是什么都不会,最无明的人,越是要装着自己高高在上,整天怜悯、俯视、指导别人的样子。)

The Karmapa concluded: In summary, with love for deluded beings and great reverence for the precious teachings, Mikyö Dorje accepted great hardships and difficulties to study with his gurus. Whatever experience arose from his listening, contemplating, and meditation, without hiding any or being miserly, he would teach dharma appropriate to the abilities of those who sought it, without delay. This is one of the most important of Mikyö Dorje’s deeds.

还记得之前我提到在念很多上师祈请文的时候,不就是请求皈依啊、加持啊。或者说这位上师好了不起,好厉害。这些祈请文或者这些赞文不就是在歌功颂德的,而是我们应该依教奉行。也就是仿效过去的这些上师们的行谊,他们怎么想、怎么做,其实都是我们的一个典范。过去的上师们,他们为了众生,或者你看到他们为了弘扬佛教,是怎么样的借由自身的闻、思、修持,真正去体会这些经论的内容。而这么做的目的从来都不是为了名闻利养,或者为了要炫耀自己,完全一念都是为了要利益众生,或者说弘扬佛教。所以我们也应该效法这样来做。我们为什么要成立这么多佛学院,上这么多的课,目的都是这样,不是未来等了毕业之后,会拿到一个毕业证书,上面你是什么学院毕业,得到什么学位。这不是我们读佛学院的目的。而是要像过去的祖师,像法王米觉多杰一样利益众生,弘扬佛教。如果没有这样子的一个动机,你在佛学院读书,或者你学习这些佛教的经论,是没有意义的。也希望你们一定要记在心上。那么我想就先讲到这里,之后再继续讲解。

Directly addressing the shedra students, the Karmapa emphasised that the practice of previous gurus should be an example so that we can benefit sentient beings and serve the teachings. We need to listen and contemplate in order to get experience. Our foremost thought should always be how to benefit suffering beings and never our own self-aggrandisement. This is the function of a shedra education.

Bamboo评论:这些佛学院就是,世间生存的技艺都一窍不通,就要去学出世间的理论。就好比把金字塔倒过来想要立在地上一样。

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