法王新闻 | 2021年02月

2021讖摩比丘尼春季辯經課程_第八天第二堂課開示

Arya Kshema Spring Teachings Day 8 – the second session

༸རྗེ་བརྒྱད་པ་མི་བསྐྱོད་ཞབས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་ཐར་བཀའ་ཁྲིད། བདེ་བྱེད་མའི་དཔྱིད་ཆོས་ཉིན་བརྒྱ་པ།

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讲课前,眼睛一直往旁边的人瞟。

時間:2021年2月25日晚上10:30-11:30(北京/台北/香港)
中文口译:堪布丹杰
中文笔录:释妙竹
English text source from: aryakshema website

米觉多杰妙行之一:不愿帮丽江土司攻打土蕃(西藏)

བོད་སྐད།
English Translation Audio
中文翻译音频

今天要讲一个新的《妙行自传》的颂文,因为前几堂课都没有讲到《妙行自传》,所以今天不讲我就不是人。

第四妙行:断除无益的散乱之法
The Fourth Good Deed : “Abandoning meaningless distractions.”

今天要讲的是第四个颂文,《妙行自传》中主要的纲要、科判,一个是前行当中“趣入佛法——佛门之法”主要有六个,这个颂文主要是第四个。这第四个科判内容是「断除无益的散乱之法」,颂文是:
The first section of the Autobriographical Verses, on How to Enter the Dharma, has six points. This is the fourth:

༤༽ ཕལ་པའི་རྣམ་གཡེང་མི་ཚེ་འཛད་ཐབས་ཙམ། ། ཡིན་པར་སྙིང་ཁོང་རུས་པའི་གཏིང་ཉིད་ནས། ། ངེས་འདྲོངས་ཐ་མལ་གཡེང་བ་ཐམས་ཅད་བསྐྱུངས། ། རིག་པ་དྭངས་ཤིང་སྐྱབས་ལ་ཡིད་ཆེས་ཐོབ། ། འདི་ཡང་བདག་གི་ལེགས་སྤྱད་ཡིན་སྙམ་བགྱིད། །
When I developed certainty from the bottom of my heart That ordinary distractions are merely ways to waste this life, I cast away all commonplace diversions. My awareness became clear; I found conviction in the Jewels. I think of this as one of my good deeds.
(4) 衷了凡夫散亂,乃蹉跎人生。故捨棄一切庸俗散亂,繼而清澄明覺,信解皈處。此謂我妙行之一。

我想就不用逐字解释。主要在米觉多杰他的教言集当中,有一个叫『教导米觉多杰传记』的教授本,这个当中说到,我觉得这段话讲得很好,所以想引用一下,这里说:“如此不分离的依止,到底是多久呢?直到成佛之前都要依止。为了做到这样的依止,要有和上师、善知识福缘相顺的地方和时间,还要有和福缘相匹配的身心状态。依止上师和善知识的障碍都要试着排除,顺缘都要具足,为了具足这些因缘,就要对于上师和正法具有信心、精进,正念、智慧、禅定、善业,烦恼是这些善业的逆缘,要让烦恼升起的任何情况,像是喜欢和不喜欢的地方和人,等等这些对境,还有因为这些对境而升起贪著和嗔念都要立刻制止,为了能够做到制止这些就要制止世俗的散乱,和为了今生名闻利养的一切作为。当三门都寂静了,心将得以调服,因此明觉清澄、智慧超群,这时就会忆念三宝的功德等。”这段简略地讲解一下:

Mikyö Dorje’s Instructions on Training in Liberation Stories reads: One must follow the guru without ever being separate from them. How long must one follow the guru? Until you achieve buddhahood. But to follow the guru in that way, you must have the fortune to be in a time and place similar to the gurus, the spiritual friends, and a body and mind of the same kind. Once you have achieved that superior basis, you must be free of obstacles and have the favourable conditions that permit following the guru and the dharma. That depends on gathering virtuous karma for that sake, such as having faith in the guru and the true dharma, and then diligence, mindfulness, samadhi, and prajna. Therefore, you must eliminate the impediments to virtue—conditions that create afflictions, places and friends that are especially pleasant or unpleasant, and cognitions that want, crave for, or hate those. If you can eliminate ordinary distractions for such purposes and distractions of thinking about methods for greatness and wealth in this life and then find solitude of body, speech, and mind, your mind will become workable and your awareness clear. Prajna will ripen and you will remember the qualities of the Three Jewels. When you remember that, you will feel that if you use your body, speech, and mind for pointless acts for even an instant, it is more precious than your life. Practice one-pointedly with that feeling.

就是我们依止善知识直到我们成佛之前都要依止。不是依止几天、几个月,甚至有的是几年而已。而是自己没有成佛之前都需要依止善知识。为了能够做到这样的依止,必须要有福德、福缘,你必须要有相顺的福缘。能够依止上师、善知识,跟随他听课,跟随他修持的这样一个相顺的福缘,有这样的地方、时间,还要有与福缘相匹配的身心的状态。平时为什么要多讲解「人身难得」?最主要就是因为你自己具备了难得的人身,而这个人身就是具备了能够依止善知识、能够学习佛法的最重要的一个顺缘。不然只是投身为人,它不见得就是暇满人身,所以「暇满人身」而要让它有意义,是你必须要在上师跟前学到法教(Bamboo:在屏幕前学算不算呢,见不到实体啊),不仅是学到而且你要真的去实践它,那么「暇满人身」才是具备了意义的。当你在听闻、思维、修持的时候,跟随善知识的时候,各种的障碍都要试着去排除,还有顺缘要具足。有很多的恶缘都会发生,但这里面最大的逆缘是什么呢?就是“烦恼”——贪心和嗔心。所以如果你想要消除依止善知识学习佛法的障碍的话,你不要去想是不是要向外祈求护法、去做多玛,不是的。而是你必须要降伏自己的妄念、烦恼

是什么造成贪、嗔念头的升起,是因为我们长久以来养成的一种习惯、习气。而这种习气是来自于,因为我们总是散乱于世俗上,总是对于今生的名闻利养这些东西所诱惑、欺骗,所以我们要尽力地舍弃世俗的散乱,身体也应该尽量住于寂静处;你的语言也不要总是说一些有的、没有的内容,要管好自己的舌头听上去象在说Bamboo)。然后内心也是要尽量地让你的心能够平静下来。身、口、意都寂静了,你的身、口、意才可能做到一些善,也因此你的明觉会变得清澄,你的智慧会超群。同时提到,你会对于三宝的功德有更深的认识,总是能够忆念起三宝的功德。当这样子的忆念升起了,那么当你三门刹那间散乱于世间那些无益的事情时,你会有一种很难过的感觉升起,所以你要尽力地让自己的身、口、意有意义,让身、口、意三门都用在佛法上。

His Holiness commented that when we follow a guru, we need to follow them, without being separated, until we achieve buddhahood. In order to follow that guru, we need the merit and we need to receive dharma teachings. In order to do that we need the basis of a body and mind, and for that, we must gather the accumulations. The precious human life—human body with leisures and resources— is dependent on finding the teachings from an authentic spiritual friend and practising them. There are many impediments and obstructions, the worst of which are the afflictions in our own being–thoughts of greed and hatred. If we want to overcome obstacles, it’s not necessary to perform obstacle-removing rituals to remove an external problem. We have to work on our own mind and eliminate all the afflictive thoughts. We are constantly being fooled by the eight worldly concerns. With our body, we should see if we can stay in a solitary space. With our speech, we should avoid meaningless speech and remain silent. And instead of our mind being distracted continuously, we should see if it can rest peacefully. If we practice these, our minds will go in a virtuous direction. Our awareness will become clear, and our intelligence will increase. If we use our body, speech and mind for the eight worldly dharmas, we will waste our lives; we need to use them purposefully to give our human life meaning and to practise the true dharma.

之前我们有提到过,米觉多杰他一生重要的一个行谊就是他不落入世俗的诱惑当中,举个例子来说,在法王米觉多杰那个时候,当时有丽江土司、丽江王。这个丽江土司统领了康区多个地方,当时他是很有权势的。这位丽江土司就延请米觉多杰,并且尊米觉多杰为国师,之后明朝的正德帝也特别派遣了信使,而且呈上了不可思议的广大供养,就是为了迎请米觉多杰前往中土。所以你可以看到当时很多的这些上师、大众、民众对于噶玛巴是非常的爱戴,当时噶玛巴的噶千大营叫「毡布庄严」,这个大营中建立的制度、规章对于整个西藏的影响是非常的大的,而且噶玛巴他当时不仅是受到藏族爱戴的一位上师,当时可以说是一个很好的情况,但是法王噶玛巴却从未考虑到自己的尊贵、庄严,是不是有权势,从来也没考虑到是不是要让自己身边的人更有影响力。他不喜欢这些作为的。他不仅是不喜欢这些,甚至会想尽办法去避免这些事情。只是这样说呢,还是不够的,详细一点来讲,所以借这个机会,我想简单讲一下噶玛巴和丽江的关系,还有噶玛巴和明朝这些皇帝和汉民族的关系是什么。

Mikyö Dorje was never fooled by these distractions. What is the evidence? Although he could have extended his power and influence through his relationship with the King of Jiang or the Ming Emperor, Mikyö Dorje never sought to do this.

Mikyö Dorje was highly regarded and greatly respected. The Garchen [Great Encampment] was known as “The Ornament of the World” and was the most influential organisation in Tibet at that time. Karma Kagyu lamas, monasteries, and so forth filled all areas of Tibet, so the Karma Kagyu was very powerful in terms of both dharma and politics. Tibetans and other people considered the Karmapa to be the greatest lama. But he did not like being great and impressive, using his power, trying to increase the influence of his sect, and so forth. Not only that, he did whatever he could to prevent that from occurring.

九岁被丽江土司迎请
The First Meeting Between the King of Jiang and the Karmapa

今天可能先讲一下丽江的关系,明天再讲和明朝皇帝的内容。首先这里说丽江,有的人可能是没有听过,因为大部分僧众是出生于印度、尼泊尔、不丹等地。但是在藏地的藏民们可能都会知道丽江。丽江当地在赞普时代的历史文献当中都有着“蒋”的名称,藏文上有些不同的拼法。曾经丽江这个地方有几次是归属于“吐蕃”所管辖。特别是吐蕃的一位赞普叫杜松忙波杰,敦煌的文献中有记载,敦煌是一个地方,在敦煌的这些洞中,当时发掘出有很多藏文的文献,文献中记载这位赞普出生于676年。在唐朝的文献中又有不同的记载。总之,这位土蕃的赞普曾经带兵进攻丽江,并将其变成他的辖地,最后这位赞普在当地也就往生了。所以丽江和吐蕃在过去就有很深厚的关系。他可以说就是一个小国,是在第七还是第八世纪成立的,介于中国和吐蕃之间的一个小国。当时因为中国在改朝换代,所以在元代忽必烈的时候,也派兵进入到大理,它是当时比丽江还大一点的王国。他就进入大理,臣服了当地,还设置了云南和丽江的管理者。元朝之后,也就是明朝,在1381年左右,明代又进攻丽江等地,这时丽江又臣服于明朝,同时也任命了当地的管理者。丽江叫木市,当时明朝就任命木市的土司来出任云南的管理者。

Jiang was a minor kingdom which arose in the border regions between Tibet and China. During the time of the Tibetan empire, the histories mention Jiang. It came under Tibetan rule several times, particularly during the time of King Düsong Mangpo. (Manuscripts from Dunhuang date the birth of Düsong Mangpo to 676 CE) He invaded Jiang and annexed it. During the time of the Mongol Emperor,Kublai Khan, it was part of Yunnan. In 1381, during the Ming dynasty, the Ming armies invaded Yunnan. The Jiang were given the clan name ‘Mu’ by the Ming emperor.

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丽江土司

当地和噶玛巴的关系是什么呢?就是第七世法王噶玛巴跟丽江的土司建立起关系,他们供养法王并且迎请法王到丽江,但是当时没有成行。到了第八世噶玛巴米觉多杰的时候,又再次受到丽江土司的迎请,当时这位土司是第13代的一个土司,我有准备一个投影,给你们看一下这位丽江的土司长什么样子(Bamboo:象黄鼠狼)。这是丽江的第13代土司,叫“木定”,他的民族是属于“纳”,有“白纳”和“黑纳”,他应该是“白纳”,中文叫“白族”,“黑纳”就是纳西族,纳西族的名字藏文念起来就是“阿牙阿秋”,音调有点奇怪。下面还有他的生卒年。这就不多念。他在担任土司的年代是1502——1526卒。他当时在康区给汤这个地方,现在中文叫香格里拉,他统治了香格里拉康区的许多地区,就是这位迎请米觉多杰到丽江。

The King of Jiang had invited the Seventh Karmapa, Chödrak Gyatso, but he was unable to go. The 13thKing of Jiang, Aya Aqiu, invited the Eighth Karmapa shortly after his enthronement. At that time the king controlled many regions in Kham,

迎请法王过程是什么样呢?米觉多杰7岁坐床,没多久之后,丽江的一位喇嘛,叫喇嘛扎西,就谒见法王,并且奉上木定的邀请信函。这是法王与这位木定土司第一次的因缘。之后法王就前往康区多次,他到了噶玛寺、冈波乃朗这些杜松虔巴建立的寺院。就在这个旅途中他接受了木定的邀请,就陆续前往云南给汤(现香格里拉)这个地方,在火子年1516年4月3日,就抵达了丽江(Bamboo注:就是9岁时)。当时在保护的列队当中,就有一个被一个绳子绑起来的大象,但这只大象竟然挣脱出来,绳子断了之后,它跑到了嘎千大营当中,大象就跑到,好像跪下来一样,大象是怎么样表示恭敬的?它就是鼻子会这样子往上一仰,下来这样子。总之,很多人看到都很惊讶(Bamboo批:又不是野象,专门训练演杂技的大象啊)。

学大象礼拜

and he sent Lama Tashi from Jiang with a letter of invitation to the seven-year old Karmapa. Travelling with the Garchen, Mikyö Dorje made his way across Kham, visiting Karma Gön and Kampo Nenang. He then went to Gyaltang [modern-day Shangri in Yunnan], and from there to Jiang, where the Garchen set up camp near the Satam Palace. An elephant, part of the military escort, broke free, went to the Karmapa’s tent, bowed his head, and raised his trunk in respect.

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色汤宫殿遗迹

当时丽江就以上万的军队列队欢迎法王,就在色汤宫殿附近,法王扎营。这里提到色汤丽江的一个宫殿,我给你们看一下,现在应该是还有一些遗迹留下来。现在也还有。这不是遗迹,是…很漂亮,现在还保存的非常好。它就像是北京故宫的缩小版。

The palace of the King Of Jiang survives to this day and the Karmapa was able to show four slides of its central pagoda surrounded by other lower buildings.

米觉多杰就在宫殿附近扎营,他没有住在宫殿中,都是住在大营中,第二天一早,丽江土司就去拜见法王,他是坐着轿子去。当时这个土司的侄子、外甥每个人都骑了一匹大象,而他另外又牵了一头大象,当时有许多不同颜色的马,白色的、黑色的,有很多人骑着这样杂色的宝马,拿着各种的幢幡来盛大欢迎米觉多杰。直到了大营米觉多杰住处前,他们就下马,或者从大象上下来后就礼拜米觉多杰。因为米觉多杰也听不懂他们的语言,就有一个叫拉卡擦黏的翻译来问候法王“扎西德勒”等,同时他们也做了许多供养。这时又一只大象对法王礼拜,不仅礼拜,还大声的鸣叫。我不会学大象叫,这里我就不学了。可能是这样吧,可能大象是这样叫着。总之那只大象礼拜,而且大声地鸣叫了。当时就有人说:“唉~怎么会大象要大吼一声呢?”因为藏人没有见过大象,为什么大象会大叫呢?当时驯象师就说:“哦,它见到了佛。这个大象非常地高兴。”总之,大象开心就会叫。同时,当时出现了很多的瑞相,天上有彩虹啊,落下花雨啊等。

学大象叫(点击播放)

At dawn, the King of Jiang himself came in a great procession to greet the Karmapa. The king was carried in a palanquin, accompanied by his uncle and younger brothers who rode elephants. The king got out of the palanquin at the Karmapa’s tent, prostrated. Another elephant appeared and bowed its head, and then began trumpeting very loudly. They asked the mahout why, and he replied, “He is really happy that the Buddha has come to see him.” There were other miraculous signs: rainbows and a rain of flowers.

从那之后,他就住在丽江大概一个星期。每天晚上,在大营附近,丽江土司都会供养各种的歌舞表演,现在还有这样的传统,有丽江的老人家大概七十、八十岁,还聚集在一起,叫供养歌舞表演(Bamboo:广场舞)。听说他们的唱诵乐器都是非常的古老,好像也是列在世界文化遗产当中,算是其中一个。法王也送给丽江土司一尊佛像、七世法王的像,还有中文版的《法华经》,佛陀的舍利等等。

Mikyö Dorje presented gifts of statues, sutras and sacred relics, and Tibetan horses. Each evening traditional musicians played outside the encampment.

接着米觉多杰就坐在他们派来的轿子上前往宫殿。这时丽江土司,大概有三进的门,他到了最外面的门来迎接法王。当时还有许多汉僧在那边吹奏,还有一个十六个人才敲得响的鼓,在击鼓。历史中都有记载。接着米觉多杰就到了宫殿当中,坐在法座上。其他的僧众都坐在蒲团或者木头的椅子上。然后他们也接受了奉茶、还有各种的绸缎的供养。丽江土司有三位公主,她们也将自己的装饰供养给法王,求授了菩提心戒。当所有的迎请结束之后,木王又引导法王送回到大营当中。第二天也是按照这样的方式再次迎请到宫殿当中。(Bamboo批:这个~出家人要绸缎和女人的首饰干嘛?)

An escort and a palanquin arrived to take him to a reception in the palace. Out of respect, the King met him at the middle gate [the main entrance] and offered a khata. Chinese monks played music and they beat a huge drum which required sixteen people to beat it. Mikyö Dorje sat on a golden throne. Tea was served, offerings of silk brocades and so on were made. The three queens took off their jewellery and offered it to the Karmapa. Then Mikyö Dorje bestowed the Boddhisattva Vows. The next day he was invited to the palace again.

当时丽江土司不断地发兵攻打吐蕃的很多地方,当地的一些人也跟噶玛巴说:“你见到土司的时候要跟他说,不要这样子。”所以当时木定王也就承诺法王在未来13年都不会发兵攻打吐蕃。而且他也承诺每年会派500个出家人到卫藏、土蕃去,而且他也承诺法王要在他的辖地中建立一百座寺院。当时土司的希望是法王能够常驻在丽江,接受他的供养,成为他的上师,但是被法王婉拒了,他说我还是要回到土蕃去的。总之,法王就在色汤的宫殿待了一周。

事实上在之前,丽江的历代土司是不相信佛法的,他们还是有血肉祭天的传统,就像最早期土蕃有血祭的仪式。但是在米觉多杰去了之后,在木定王之后,他们就对佛法,尤其是对噶举派,对噶玛巴升起了很大的信心,也成为了冈仓噶举很重要的施主。尤其第十世噶玛巴确英多杰因为一些很大的动乱,他没有办法待在拉萨,所以他就到了康区,后来又一路到了丽江,住了许多年。如果当时没有这样一个丽江让噶玛巴住在那里的话,大概第十世噶玛巴是活不下来的。所以丽江的土司和丽江当地的人们从历史上来说,对噶玛巴是很有恩德的,因为在最幸苦的时候,收容了噶玛巴,有一个寄托处

There were many good outcomes from this meeting. At that time, the King of Jiang was involved in various conflicts, but he agreed not to wage war with Tibet for fifteen years. The indigenous religion in Jiang was similar to the old form of Tibetan Bön and involved animal sacrifice. After Mikyö Dorje’s visit, the king gained an unshakeable faith in Buddhism. He promised to send 500 people to become monks and to build 100 monasteries. Finally, it was probably because the Eighth Karmapa had made the connection that the 10thKarmapa, Chöying Dorje, and other Kagyu lamas were able to seek refuge there.

总之,米觉多杰在那里待了一周后就回到土蕃。在路上也有兵一路护送。同时法王也承诺七年之后返回丽江,但最后好像没有成行。但之后第十世法王确英多杰却在丽江住了很久,很多人都说都是之前八世法王的一个承诺,所以第十世法王才会在丽江住了那么多年。有这样的说法。总之,木定王之前的承诺,就像不再派兵攻打土蕃,还有每年会派五百位出家僧众,还有做供养等等,他也真的都做到了。他供养了什么,派了什么人都有很清楚的一个记载。当时据说法王在之后到了给汤,也再建了一个新的寺院,叫“康桑衮”,我们说丽江的《甘珠尔》,木刻版不知道是在哪里刻的,但是保存丽江大藏经的应该就是这个“康桑衮”的寺院,当然之后因为固始汗的带兵攻打,所以这个“康桑衮”的寺院也被摧毁了。

The Jiang king hoped that Mikyö Dorje would remain in Jiang, but, after a week, he started on his way back to Tibet. The Karmapa promised that he would return after seven years, but for some reason was unable to. However, years later Jiang would become a place of refuge for the Karma Kagyu.

总之,你看到噶玛巴米觉多杰和丽江土司是有这样子的一个关系的,简略地讲了一下。那么明天呢,会讲一下噶玛巴和明朝的一些关系,那为什么要讲这一段历史呢?不是因为好玩想到就讲,而是因为当时他受到明朝正德帝的迎请,为什么他要迎请噶玛巴呢?还要往回去回溯,就是第五世噶玛巴德新谢巴的那段故事也需要讲。因为从那时明朝就跟噶玛巴结下了法缘,所以之后历代噶玛巴,应该是到第九世噶玛巴的时候,都跟明朝有很深厚的因缘。最开始是哪位噶玛巴开始的呢?就是第五世噶玛巴。所以也要附带谈到第五世噶玛巴德新谢巴。当时明朝那些迎请,还有当地的汉族们怎么样信仰噶玛巴,还有一些什么样的情况呢,都有很清楚的一个记载,因为那样的因缘,之后明正德帝才会迎请米觉多杰。但之后米觉多杰真的被迎请到吗?明天会再跟大家说。今天就讲到这里。

Bamboo批:看到这里,Bamboo得出来的结论是,第七世噶玛巴勾结第十三代丽江土司,一直想发兵抢夺拉萨等地盘。他虽然没有跟丽江土司直接见面,但是派嘉察仁波切一直联系。所以第五天第一堂课时说嘉察仁波切在嘎千大营待不下去之时,只好前往丽江。

因为米觉多杰是嘉察仁波切所立,所以木定土司才着力支持地位不稳,才九岁的米觉多杰。目的就是想继续用噶玛巴的影响力帮他夺取西藏。只是米觉多杰是个本来要饿死的乞丐养子,人又懒,能混在噶玛巴的位子上衣来伸手饭来张口就心满意足了,无心也无力去跟别的教派争地盘。所以这事就搁置下来。因为避免了巨大的杀业,他才长寿。

到了第五世达赖,为了消除这个威胁,所以效法第七世噶玛巴的做法,勾结了蒙古固始汗,把噶玛巴体系给几近消灭,建立了政教合一的政权。所以,没有第七世的因,也就不会有第十世的果;没有第八世的规避杀业的因,也没有第十世能保住小命的果。

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